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GALERIE ART PREMIER AFRICAIN GALERIE ART PRIMITIF AFRICAIN AFRICAN ART GALLERY

Art Gallery the Eye and the Hand
Result of the research Result of the research : 'riti'

Gèlèdè Mask, Yoruba, Nigeria
Gèlèdè Mask, Yoruba, Nigeria
€ 12,000.00
Gelede mask, Yoruba, Nigeria
Gelede mask, Yoruba, Nigeria
€ 22,000.00

Image Songye masks

 

The linear decoration, signature Songye.

All masks are decorated Kifwebe type linear alternating stripes and white stripes, black and red too, whose purpose is yet unknown. The masks have formal and stylistic features interesting and original. They are often large size, including male pattern masks topped by huge peaks. The deformations in the face made the projection in front of the mouth and eyes is probably unique in the history of art. The resulting creations of great beauty and immense. Very modern, they are without doubt among the masterpieces of art.

Despite their similarities, the functions of these masks are different since the male mask Kifwebe Songye, easily recognizable by the existence of a ridge, because the police and the female mask Songye fate on the occasion of inauguration ceremonies or funerals of dignitaries.

The colors are symbolic, like shapes, they indicate "sex" of the mask but also its potential magic. The white female still has a form of benevolence. Black is associated with occult qualities of the mask. The black streaks are intended to conceal malicious aspects of the mask to the uninitiated. Red is associated with blood, fire, but also the courage, strength, and knowledge.

African Art / African Art / primitive art / primitive art / primitive arts / art gallery / art Tribal / Tribal Art / Africa / Africa / eye and hand / first art gallery / buy / sell / expertise / expert / exposure /

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DE L'ART ANCIEN AFRICAIN, DE L'ETHNOLOGIE ET DU MUSEE: POUR UN RECENTREMENT DE L'ESTHETIQUE...


Au commencement était la nuit. Une longue nuit pour l'esthétique africaine. Ce fut le règne sans partage du musée dit «de séries», véritable vitrine du colonialisme, de confession évolutionniste et dont l'approche contextualiste célébrait l'Etrange, chantait l'Aventure et la Science. A cette époque point d'« objets », que des curiosités, trésors de guerre et pièces de laboratoires de chevronnés « Civilisateurs ». Il n'était pas rare alors, de voir des sculptures côtoyer dans les vitrines : cornes, peaux de bêtes et autres feuilles de palmier. Puis, il y eut le regard affûté d'une jeune génération d'artistes particulièrement douée et par ailleurs cruellement blasée, en quête de médecine pour un art européen las de son académisme figé. Cette génération vit dans ce fouillis les moyens d'une rédemption...

Une certaine révolution est venue corriger l'évidente injustice, consacrant depuis le siècle dernier des expositions à caractère esthétique pour la production africaine. Désormais, les objets, dans une dramaturgie suggérée par les seules qualités plastiques, invitent à un rapport nouveau. Exit la surabondance, la cacophonie et le "meurtre du vrai" que génère la tentative bancale de reconstitution de l'ailleurs fantasmé. Ici on ne rejoue pas le film de l'heureuse rencontre avortée entre "civilisés" et "primitifs". Nous avons les vrais Stars que sont les objets, mais d'une

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Tribe

A tribe, is a social group of humans connected by a shared system of values and organized for mutual care, defense, and survival beyond that which could be attained by a lone individual or family. A 'tribe' is defined in anthropology. When viewed historically or developmentally, a tribe is a mutual care system which, unlike a kingdom or state or other schema, is oriented around kinship and shared beliefs. Tribes can well exist simultaneously with other schema (see Schema (psychology)) such as states or other systems. They might consist of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states. Tribes are the most enduring and successful social survival system that has ever existed on earth. Tribes can exist within or without a state or kingdom and may or may not depend on the state or kingdom to endure.

Many anthropologists use the term to refer to societies organized largely on the basis of kinship, especially corporate descent groups.

Some theorists hold that tribes represent a stage in social evolution intermediate between bands and states. Other theorists argue that tribes developed after, and must be understood in terms of their relationship to states.

Etymology

The English word tribe occurs in 13th century Middle English literature as referring to one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel. The word is from Old French tribu, in turn from Latin tribus, referring to the original tripartite ethnic
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Tribe

A tribe, is a social group of humans connected by a shared system of values and organized for mutual care, defense, and survival beyond that which could be attained by a lone individual or family. A 'tribe' is defined in anthropology. When viewed historically or developmentally, a tribe is a mutual care system which, unlike a kingdom or state or other schema, is oriented around kinship and shared beliefs. Tribes can well exist simultaneously with other schema (see Schema (psychology)) such as states or other systems. They might consist of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states. Tribes are the most enduring and successful social survival system that has ever existed on earth. Tribes can exist within or without a state or kingdom and may or may not depend on the state or kingdom to endure.

Many anthropologists use the term to refer to societies organized largely on the basis of kinship, especially corporate descent groups.

Some theorists hold that tribes represent a stage in social evolution intermediate between bands and states. Other theorists argue that tribes developed after, and must be understood in terms of their relationship to states.

Etymology

The English word tribe occurs in 13th century Middle English literature as referring to one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel. The word is from Old French tribu, in turn from Latin tribus, referring to the original tripartite ethnic
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Un reliquaire est au départ une sorte de coffret destiné à abriter une ou plusieurs reliques. Les reliquaires sont en fait d'une grande variété de forme et d'usage.


Les reliquaires dans le christianisme

Au sens premier du mot, un reliquaire (du latin reliquiarium) contient les reliques d'un saint chrétien.
Différentes catégories
    * La forme la plus ancienne du reliquaire chrétien est la châsse (du latin capsa, « boîte », « coffre »), qui rappelle le cercueil primitif et contient le corps entier du saint.
      Icône de détail Article détaillé : Châsse.
    * Dans certaines églises comme à Rouen, on a conservé longtemps le vieux terme de fierte (du latin feretrum, « brancard » ou « civière mortuaire »).
    * Le terme reliquaire s'applique théoriquement à tout récipient contenant des reliques, y compris les châsses, mais en pratique on le réserve à des coffrets et boîtes de plus petite taille qui ne contiennent pas le corps entier d'un saint.
    * On a parfois
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Ethnic group

An ethnic group is a group of human beings whose members identify with each other, through a common heritage that is real or presumed.

Ethnic identity is further marked by the recognition from others of a group's distinctiveness and the recognition of common cultural, linguistic, religious, behavioural ,, as indicators of contrast to other groups.

Ethnicity is an important means through which people can identify themselves. According to "Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science, politics, and reality", a conference organised by Statistics Canada and the United States Census Bureau (April 1–3, 1992), "Ethnicity is a fundamental factor in human life: it is a phenomenon inherent in human experience." However, many social scientists, like anthropologists Fredrik Barth and Eric Wolf, do not consider ethnic identity to be universal. They regard ethnicity as a product of specific kinds of inter-group interactions, rather than an essential quality inherent to human groups.Processes that result in the emergence of such identification are called ethnogenesis. Members of an ethnic group, on the whole, claim cultural continuities over time. Historians and cultural anthropologists have documented, however, that often many of the values, practices, and norms that imply continuity with the past are of relatively recent invention.

According to Thomas Hylland Eriksen, until recently the study of ethnicity was dominated by two distinct debates. One is between "primordialism" and
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C’est en 1951 que le critique d’art Michel Tapié organise à Paris une exposition intitulée « Véhémences confrontées » et qui rassemble entre autres des artistes tels que Camille Bryen, Hans Hartung, Wols, Georges Mathieu, Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Jean-Paul Riopelle. Les œuvres exposées sont non figuratives et privilégient matières, traces et tâches de couleurs au détriment de la forme. Tapié organisera très vite d’autres manifestations comme « Signifiants de l’informel » retenant plus particulièrement le travail sur la matière de Jean Dubuffet, Jean Fautrier, ou encore d’Antoni Tàpies.
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Un reliquaire est au départ une sorte de coffret destiné à abriter une ou plusieurs reliques. Les reliquaires sont en fait d'une grande variété de forme et d'usage.

Les reliquaires dans le christianisme
Au sens premier du mot, un reliquaire (du latin reliquiarium) contient les reliques d'un saint chrétien.
Différentes catégories
    * La forme la plus ancienne du reliquaire chrétien est la châsse (du latin capsa, « boîte », « coffre »), qui rappelle le cercueil primitif et contient le corps entier du saint.
      Icône de détail Article détaillé : Châsse.
    * Dans certaines églises comme à Rouen, on a conservé longtemps le vieux terme de fierte (du latin feretrum, « brancard » ou « civière mortuaire »).
    * Le terme reliquaire s'applique théoriquement à tout récipient contenant des reliques, y compris les châsses, mais en pratique on le réserve à des coffrets et boîtes de plus petite taille qui ne contiennent pas le corps entier d'un saint.
    * On a parfois usé du terme grec de
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C’est en 1951 que le critique d’art Michel Tapié organise à Paris une exposition intitulée « Véhémences confrontées » et qui rassemble entre autres des artistes tels que Camille Bryen, Hans Hartung, Wols, Georges Mathieu, Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Jean-Paul Riopelle. Les œuvres exposées sont non figuratives et privilégient matières, traces et tâches de couleurs au détriment de la forme. Tapié organisera très vite d’autres manifestations comme « Signifiants de l’informel » retenant plus particulièrement le travail sur la matière de Jean Dubuffet, Jean Fautrier, ou encore d’Antoni Tàpies.
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Anne-Louise Amanieu
Ecole du Louvre
Spécialité Arts de l'Afrique
Février 2008

LES PEINTURES DE L'EGLISE ABBA ANTONIOS

Les peintures sur toile de l'église Abba Antonios de Gondar en Ethiopie ont été collectées par Marcel Griaule et son équipe lors de la mission Dakar-Djibouti en 1932. Elles datent sûrement de la fin du XVIIième siècle et mesurent (pour les morceaux installés au Musée du Quai Branly) environ 2,3 mètres de haut. L'ensemble porte les numéros d'inventaire allant de 31.74.3584 à 31.74.3630.

DESCRIPTION

Les peintures de l'église Abba Antonios sont faites à base d'œuf, sur un support de toile. Elles représentent essentiellement des figures de saints ou des épisodes de l'histoire chrétienne (Ancien et Nouveau Testament, écritures apocryphes), disposés dans des registres superposés.
Au Musée du Quai Branly, la totalité de ce qui a été récolté (environ 60m²) n'est pas exposée. Dans la salle consacrée aux peintures éthiopiennes, à droite on peut voir
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Martine Pinard
Ecole du Louvre
Spécialité Arts de l'Afrique
Janvier 2008

" L'Art nègre ? Connais pas  " ! Picasso, 1920

I. Préambule

Au début du XXème siècle et plus précisément vers les années 1905-1907, des peintres commencèrent à collectionner des sculptures d'Afrique et d'Océanie. Qui sont ces collectionneurs de ce qu'on a appelé l' " art nègre " (terme qu'il faudra définir) ; comment, dans quel contexte, ont eu lieu les premières acquisitions ?
Cette première question en induit naturellement une autre : s'il y eut un engouement de prime abord (semble-t-il) " artistique ", qui étaient les premiers collectionneurs-marchands, nécessairement devaient être présents dans le circuit de ces acquisitions ?
Enfin, de manière plus générale, le dossier soulève en toile de fond, la question du changement de regard pour l'art africain et plus généralement l'art des " Autres " sous l'angle de l'impact de cet engouement du début du XX ème siècle. Peut-on esquisser une " trajectoire "
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African traditional masks

There are an enormous variety of masks used in Africa. In West Africa, masks are used in masquerades that form part of religious ceremonies enacted to contact with spirits and ancestors.

The Yoruba, Igbo and Edo cultures, including Egungun Masquerades and Northern Edo Masquerades. The masks are usually carved with an extraordinary skill and variety by artists who will usually have received their training as an apprentice to a master carver - frequently it is a tradition that has been passed down within a family through many generations. Such an artist holds a respected position in tribal society because of the work that he/she creates, embodying not only complex craft techniques but also spiritual/social and symbolic knowledge. African masks are also used in the Mas or Masquerade of the Caribbean Carnival.

African masks are made from different materials: wood, bronze, brass, copper, ivory, terra cotta and glazed pottery, raffia and textiles. Some African masks are colourful. Many African masks represent animals. Some African tribes believe that the animal masks can help them communicate with the spirits who live in forests or open savannas. People of Burkina Faso known as the Bwa and Nuna call to the spirit to stop destruction. The Dogon of Mali have complex religions that also have animal masks. Their beliefs are in three main cults - the Awa, cult of the dead, Bini, cult of communication with spirits and Lebe, cult of earth and nature. These three main cults nevertheless use seventy-eight different types of masks. Most of the ceremonies of the Dogon culture are secret, although the antelope dance is shown to non-Dogons. The antelope masks are rough rectangular boxes with several horns coming out of the top. The Dogons are expert agriculturists and the antelope symbolizes a hard working farmer.

Another culture that has a very rich agricultural tradition is the
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Guillaume Apollinaire

Born     26 August 1880(1880-08-26)
Rome, Italy1
Died     9 November 1918 (aged 38)
Paris, France

Wilhelm Albert Włodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki, known as Guillaume Apollinaire  Rome, August 26, 1880 – November 9, 1918, Paris) was a French poet, writer and art critic born in Italy to a Polish mother.

Among the foremost poets of the early 20th century, he is credited with coining the word "surrealism" and writing one of the earliest works described as surrealist, the play Les Mamelles de Tirésias (1917, used as the basis for a 1947 opera).

Two years after being wounded in World War I, he died at age 38, a victim of the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic.

Life

Born Wilhelm Albert Włodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki and raised speaking French, among other languages, he emigrated to France and adopted the name Guillaume Apollinaire. His mother, born Angelica Kostrowicka, was a Polish noblewoman born near Navahrudak (now in Belarus). Apollinaire's father is unknown but may have been Francesco Flugi d'Aspermont, a Swiss Italian aristocrat
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Edvard Munch

Born     12 December 1863(1863-12-12)
Ådalsbruk in Løten, Norway
Died     23 January 1944 (aged 80)
Oslo, Norway
Nationality     Norwegian

Edvard Munch (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈmuŋk], 12 December 1863 – 23 January 1944) was a Norwegian Symbolist painter, printmaker and an important forerunner of expressionistic art. His best-known composition, The Scream, is part of a series The Frieze of Life, in which Munch explored the themes of life, love, fear, death, and melancholy.

Biography

Youth

Edvard Munch was born in a rustic farmhouse in the village of Ådalsbruk in Løten, Norway to Christian Munch, the son of a prominent priest. Christian was a doctor and medical officer who married Laura Cathrine Bjølstad, a woman half his age, in 1861. Edvard had an older sister, Johanne Sophie (born 1862), and three younger siblings: Peter Andreas (born 1865), Laura Cathrine (born 1867), and Inger Marie (born 1868). Both Sophie and Edvard appear to have inherited their artistic talent from their mother. Edvard Munch was related to painter Jacob
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Image Alberto Giacometti
Alberto Giacometti

Alberto Giacometti (October 10, 1901 – January 11, 1966) was a Swiss sculptor, painter, draftsman, and printmaker.


Biography

Early life

Alberto Giacometti was born in Borgonovo, now part of the Swiss municipality of Stampa, near the Italian border. His father, Giovanni Giacometti, was a painter. Alberto attended the School of Fine Arts in Geneva. In 1922 he moved to Paris to study under the sculptor Antoine Bourdelle, an associate of Auguste Rodin. It was there that Giacometti experimented with cubism and surrealism and came to be regarded as one of the leading surrealist sculptors. Among his associates were Joan Miró, Max Ernst, Pablo Picasso and Balthus.

Between 1936 and 1940, Giacometti concentrated his sculpting on the human head, focusing on the model's gaze, followed by a unique artistic phase in which his statues became stretched out; their limbs elongated. Obsessed with creating his sculptures exactly as he envisioned through his unique view of reality, he often carved until they were as thin as nails and reduced to the size of a pack of cigarettes, much to his consternation. A friend of his once said that if Giacometti decided to sculpt you, "he would make your head look like the blade of a knife." After his marriage his tiny sculptures became larger, but the larger they grew, the thinner they became. Giacometti said that the final result
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Constantin Brâncuşi

Constantin Brâncuşi; Photograph taken by Edward Steichen in 1922.
Born     February 19, 1876(1876-02-19)
Hobiţa, Romania
Died     March 16, 1957 (aged 81)
Paris, France
Nationality     Romanian
Field     sculpture
Training     École des Beaux-Arts
Movement     Modernism
Works     Bird in Space, The Endless Column
Patrons     John Quinn
Awards     Romanian Academy

Constantin Brâncuşi (Romanian pronunciation: [konstanˈtin brɨnˈkuʃʲ]; February 19, 1876 – March 16, 1957) was an internationally renowned Romanian sculptor whose sculptures, which blend simplicity and sophistication, led the way for modernist sculptors.

Early
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Max Ernst

Born     April 2, 1891(1891-04-02)
Brühl, Germany
Died     April 1, 1976 (aged 84)
Paris, France
Nationality     German

Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet. A prolific artist, Ernst is considered to be one of the primary pioneers of the Dada movement and Surrealism.

Early life

Ernst was born in Brühl, Germany, near Cologne. In 1909, he enrolled in the University at Bonn to study philosophy but soon abandoned the courses. He began painting that year, but never received any formal artistic training. During World War I he served in the German army, which was a momentous interruption in his career as an artist. He stated in his autobiography, "Max Ernst died the 1st of August, 1914."

[edit] Dada and Surrealism
Max Ernst, Ubu Imperator, (1923), Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris, France

After the war, filled with new
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De l’africanisme aux études africaines Textes et « humanités » Alain Ricard Tout discours sur l'Afrique, et en particulier l'Afrique noire, ne peut il relever que de la passion, voire de lacompassion ? N’y a t-il que les fous d’Afrique – titre d’un livre récent – pour s’intéresser à elle ? Quelles formes de raison peut-il convoquer ?La première qui se présenta fut géographique. Sorte de page blanche de notre humanité jusqu'au XIXe siècle, l'Afrique a été inscrite avec nos routes, nos cartes, nos frontières ; aujourd'hui, les images satellitaires ne nous en laisentrien ignorer. Nous savons au mètre près ce qui se passe à Kisangani en guerre, là où Stanley donna à des chutes son nom : il avait compris que cette courbe du fleuve Congo était le centre du continent, il pensait en géographe et en stratège... Cette Afrique des images reste face à nous, extérieure : ne relève-t-elle pas aussi d'autres formes de raison plus intérieures, voire existentielles ? Quel immense murmure monte de la forêt ? Que dit-il ? Ces Africains ne sont-ils qued'empruntés francophones ou de pompeux anglophones ? Des bégayeurs maladroits ou des volubiles irresponsables ?L'inscription géographique, qui en reste à l'image, est trop facilement la proie de la marchandise. Aujourd'hui il nous faut le son, le discours. Des langues en expansion composent d'autres circulations que nous ne capterons pas avec nos satellites. Il nous faut passer de l'œil à l'oreille, du regard à l'écoute... Les blancs des cartes Les sciences humaines redécouvrent l’afrique, titrait un journal du soir après un colloque tenu à Nantes – « Les sciences de l’homme

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Les collections d'art africain dans les musées du monde

L'Amérique

Bermudes

Hamilton
 Bermuda National Gallery
 City Hall, Church Street
 lu-sa 10-16
 Arts d'Afrique occidentale: Bamana, Bwa, Bete, Guro, Yaoure, Senufo, Ashanti, Yoruba, Ibo, Bamileke...
 
Brésil

Bahia
 Museu Afro-Brasileiro. Universidade Federal da Bahia
 Terreiro de Jesus
 ma-sa 9-17
 Arts et objets cultuels d'Afrique Noire: Yoruba...

Sao Paulo
 Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia. Universidade de Sao Paulo
 Cidade Universitaria. Av. Prof Almeida Prado
 ma-ve 9-17; sa 10-14
 Ethnographie de l'Afrique noire. Exposition permanente "Culturas e Sociedades"
 
Canada

Calgary
 Glenbow Museum
 130 9th Avenue S.E.
 ma-di 9-17
 Arts d'Afrique occidentale: Baga, Senufo, Ashanti, Yoruba, Ibo, Yaunde, Bamileke... (non exposés en permanence)
 
Kingston (Ontario)
 Agnes Etherington Art Centre. Queens University
 Queens University Campus
 ma-ve 10-17; sa-di 13-17
 Arts d'Afrique occidentale: Bidyogo, Dogon, Bamana, Bankoni, Mossi, Dan, Senufo, Baule, Yaure, Anyi, Ashanti, Fanti...
 Arts du Nigeria: Yoruba, Ibo, Urhobo, Koro, Mama, Kaka...
 Arts du Gabon et du Congo: Fang, Kota, Bembe, Kongo, Yombe, Pende, Luba, Hemba, Lega, Songye, Tshokwe... (Coll. Lang)
 
Montréal
 Musée des beaux-arts
 1379-1380 rue

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