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 GALERIE ART PREMIER AFRICAIN GALERIE ART PRIMITIF AFRICAIN AFRICAN ART GALLERY

GALERIE ART PREMIER AFRICAIN GALERIE ART PRIMITIF AFRICAIN AFRICAN ART GALLERY

Art Gallery the Eye and the Hand
Situation : Welcome » Result of the research
Result of the research Result of the research : 'congo'

Kifwebe mask, Songe people, Democratic Republic of Congo
Kifwebe mask, Songe people, Democratic Republic of Congo
€ 32,000.00
Kifwebe mask, Songye people, Democratic Republic of Congo
Kifwebe mask, Songye people, Democratic Republic of Congo
€ 8,500.00
Masque kifwebe
Masque kifwebe
€ 12,000.00
Masque Kifwebe
Masque Kifwebe
€ 11,500.00
Female Kifwebe mask, Songye, Democratic Republic of Congo
Female Kifwebe mask, Songye, Democratic Republic of Congo
€ 12,000.00

Martine Pinard
Ecole du Louvre
Spécialité Arts de l'Afrique
Janvier 2008

" L'Art nègre ? Connais pas  " ! Picasso, 1920

I. Préambule

Au début du XXème siècle et plus précisément vers les années 1905-1907, des peintres commencèrent à collectionner des sculptures d'Afrique et d'Océanie. Qui sont ces collectionneurs de ce qu'on a appelé l' " art nègre " (terme qu'il faudra définir) ; comment, dans quel contexte, ont eu lieu les premières acquisitions ?
Cette première question en induit naturellement une autre : s'il y eut un engouement de prime abord (semble-t-il) " artistique ", qui étaient les premiers collectionneurs-marchands, nécessairement devaient être présents dans le circuit de ces acquisitions ?
Enfin, de manière plus générale, le dossier soulève en toile de fond, la question du changement de regard pour l'art africain et plus généralement l'art des " Autres " sous l'angle de l'impact de cet engouement du début du XX ème siècle. Peut-on esquisser une " trajectoire "
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African traditional masks

There are an enormous variety of masks used in Africa. In West Africa, masks are used in masquerades that form part of religious ceremonies enacted to contact with spirits and ancestors.

The Yoruba, Igbo and Edo cultures, including Egungun Masquerades and Northern Edo Masquerades. The masks are usually carved with an extraordinary skill and variety by artists who will usually have received their training as an apprentice to a master carver - frequently it is a tradition that has been passed down within a family through many generations. Such an artist holds a respected position in tribal society because of the work that he/she creates, embodying not only complex craft techniques but also spiritual/social and symbolic knowledge. African masks are also used in the Mas or Masquerade of the Caribbean Carnival.

African masks are made from different materials: wood, bronze, brass, copper, ivory, terra cotta and glazed pottery, raffia and textiles. Some African masks are colourful. Many African masks represent animals. Some African tribes believe that the animal masks can help them communicate with the spirits who live in forests or open savannas. People of Burkina Faso known as the Bwa and Nuna call to the spirit to stop destruction. The Dogon of Mali have complex religions that also have animal masks. Their beliefs are in three main cults - the Awa, cult of the dead, Bini, cult of communication with spirits and Lebe, cult of earth and nature. These three main cults nevertheless use seventy-eight different types of masks. Most of the ceremonies of the Dogon culture are secret, although the antelope dance is shown to non-Dogons. The antelope masks are rough rectangular boxes with several horns coming out of the top. The Dogons are expert agriculturists and the antelope symbolizes a hard working farmer.

Another culture that has a very rich agricultural tradition is the
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De l’africanisme aux études africaines Textes et « humanités » Alain Ricard Tout discours sur l'Afrique, et en particulier l'Afrique noire, ne peut il relever que de la passion, voire de lacompassion ? N’y a t-il que les fous d’Afrique – titre d’un livre récent – pour s’intéresser à elle ? Quelles formes de raison peut-il convoquer ?La première qui se présenta fut géographique. Sorte de page blanche de notre humanité jusqu'au XIXe siècle, l'Afrique a été inscrite avec nos routes, nos cartes, nos frontières ; aujourd'hui, les images satellitaires ne nous en laisentrien ignorer. Nous savons au mètre près ce qui se passe à Kisangani en guerre, là où Stanley donna à des chutes son nom : il avait compris que cette courbe du fleuve Congo était le centre du continent, il pensait en géographe et en stratège... Cette Afrique des images reste face à nous, extérieure : ne relève-t-elle pas aussi d'autres formes de raison plus intérieures, voire existentielles ? Quel immense murmure monte de la forêt ? Que dit-il ? Ces Africains ne sont-ils qued'empruntés francophones ou de pompeux anglophones ? Des bégayeurs maladroits ou des volubiles irresponsables ?L'inscription géographique, qui en reste à l'image, est trop facilement la proie de la marchandise. Aujourd'hui il nous faut le son, le discours. Des langues en expansion composent d'autres circulations que nous ne capterons pas avec nos satellites. Il nous faut passer de l'œil à l'oreille, du regard à l'écoute... Les blancs des cartes Les sciences humaines redécouvrent l’afrique, titrait un journal du soir après un colloque tenu à Nantes – « Les sciences de l’homme

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Les collections d'art africain dans les musées du monde

L'Amérique

Bermudes

Hamilton
 Bermuda National Gallery
 City Hall, Church Street
 lu-sa 10-16
 Arts d'Afrique occidentale: Bamana, Bwa, Bete, Guro, Yaoure, Senufo, Ashanti, Yoruba, Ibo, Bamileke...
 
Brésil

Bahia
 Museu Afro-Brasileiro. Universidade Federal da Bahia
 Terreiro de Jesus
 ma-sa 9-17
 Arts et objets cultuels d'Afrique Noire: Yoruba...

Sao Paulo
 Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia. Universidade de Sao Paulo
 Cidade Universitaria. Av. Prof Almeida Prado
 ma-ve 9-17; sa 10-14
 Ethnographie de l'Afrique noire. Exposition permanente "Culturas e Sociedades"
 
Canada

Calgary
 Glenbow Museum
 130 9th Avenue S.E.
 ma-di 9-17
 Arts d'Afrique occidentale: Baga, Senufo, Ashanti, Yoruba, Ibo, Yaunde, Bamileke... (non exposés en permanence)
 
Kingston (Ontario)
 Agnes Etherington Art Centre. Queens University
 Queens University Campus
 ma-ve 10-17; sa-di 13-17
 Arts d'Afrique occidentale: Bidyogo, Dogon, Bamana, Bankoni, Mossi, Dan, Senufo, Baule, Yaure, Anyi, Ashanti, Fanti...
 Arts du Nigeria: Yoruba, Ibo, Urhobo, Koro, Mama, Kaka...
 Arts du Gabon et du Congo: Fang, Kota, Bembe, Kongo, Yombe, Pende, Luba, Hemba, Lega, Songye, Tshokwe... (Coll. Lang)
 
Montréal
 Musée des beaux-arts
 1379-1380 rue

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Black African Literature
Modern literature of Black Africa lies at the confluence of various trends: its
own traditions and diverse, the impact of Islamic and Arab worlds;
the pervasive influence of European colonialism and Christianity. Africans
have been particularly prolific since the Second World War;
using French, English, Portuguese and more than forty African languages, they
made up of poetry, fiction, drama, and invented forms of writing
for which there is no description in the European literary world. Their
works portray the modern political and social reality, and focus on
value systems, whether or not African. At the same time, their writings
are based on indigenous traditions and world views typically
Africa.
Long before Europeans arrived, even before the development of writing,
peoples of sub-Saharan Africa have expressed their thoughts in an artistic manner,
their feelings and concerns the deepest in the form of myths,
legends, allegories, parables and stories, songs and chants from
poems, proverbs, riddles and theater. Some traditional forms of
oral literature have survived until today, while new forms do
cease to

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Africa under colonial rule, 1880-1935

Research Director
Professor A. A. Boahen (Ghana)

In February 1976, in Nigeria, a man was arrested at a police checkpoint between Ibadan and Lagos. He was carrying two bags full of bronze sculptures and wood on suspicion of having stolen it affirmât well as the owner. Upon inquiry, the man telling the truth. Recently converted to Islam, he lived and worked in Ibadan at a community center. The effigies of deities carved Yoruba he was carrying had been brought in Ibadan, like many others, by migrant workers to satisfy the spiritual aspirations of these artisans, shopkeepers, civil servants and other migrant workers in their temporary residence. But the leader of the community, having converted to Islam, began in turn to convert their neighbors. Converted in his turn, the suspect heard himself served as symbols of their ancient faith were to disappear to allow the community center to become a dwelling worthy of the spiritual presence of Allah. Unable to consider destroying these objects, he resolved to return to his village, place of origin, where they have since been resettled.

This incident is a perfect example of the evolution of cultural forms and their concrete manifestation and at the same time, the survival or the renewal of cultural values from specific forms of domination, whether of a religious or more clearly social. What remained true in 1976 was even more common during this period particularly dramatic external domination of Africa, which saw the submission of an entire people, its social

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Visual, performing, and literary arts of sub-Saharan Africa. What gives art in Africa its special character is the generally small scale of most of its traditional societies, in which one finds a bewildering variety of styles. The earliest evidence of visual art is provided by figures scratched and painted on rocks c. 3000 BC. Pastoral cultures in the east emphasize personal adornment; sculpture predominates in the agricultural societies in the west and south. Clay figurines found in Nigeria date to 500 BC. Metalworking was practiced from the 9th century AD. Sculptures in stone, ivory, and wood date from the 16th – 17th centuries; some of the finest wood sculptures date from the 20th century. Architecture dominates the arts of the north and of the eastern coast, where Islam and Christianity exerted their influence; important work includes magnificent mosques built of mud and rock-hewn churches. Perhaps the most distinctive features of African music are the complexity of rhythmic patterning achieved by a great variety of drums and the relationship between melodic form and language tone structure. Without this the text of a song is rendered meaningless; but, even in purely instrumental music, melodic pattern is likely to follow speech tone. Dances are realized in radically different styles throughout Africa. Movement patterns often depend upon the way in which environmental, historical, and social circumstances have been articulated in working, social, and recreational movements. Often there is no distinction between ritual celebration and social recreation. The masquerade is a complex art form employing many media; masquerades may entertain, be used to fight disease, be consulted as oracles, initiate boys to manhood, impersonate ancestors, judge disputes, or execute criminals. The mask is essentially a dramatic device enabling performers to stand apart from their everyday role in the community.
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The Metropolitan Museum of Art is an art museum located on the eastern edge of Central Park, along what is known as Museum Mile in New York City, USA. It has a permanent collection containing more than two million works of art, divided into nineteen curatorial departments. The main building, often referred to simply as "the Met," is one of the world's largest art galleries, and has a much smaller second location in Upper Manhattan, at "The Cloisters," which features medieval art.

Represented in the permanent collection are works of art from classical antiquity and Ancient Egypt, paintings and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, and an extensive collection of American and modern art. The Met also maintains extensive holdings of African, Asian, Oceanic, Byzantine and Islamic art. The museum is also home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments, costumes and accessories, and antique weapons and armor from around the world. A number of notable interiors, ranging from 1st century Rome through modern American design, are permanently installed in the Met's galleries.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870 by a group of American citizens. The founders included businessmen and financiers, as well as leading artists and thinkers of the day, who wanted to open a museum to bring art and art education to the American people. It opened on February 20, 1872, and was originally located at 681 Fifth Avenue.

As of 2007, the Met measures almost a quarter mile long and occupies more than two million square feet.
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The royal Museum of central Africa is located in Tervuren, Belgium, in some kilometres in Brussels.

Created in 1897 at the instigation of the king Leopold II he is intimately linked to the history of the colonisation of Congo by Belgium. The museum of Congo, colonial palace in layout art nouveau constructed in the middle of a sumptuous park linked up in Brussels by a double avenue especially creates, was at origin intended to awaken interest and curiosity of the Belgian people for what was in epoch'« independent State of Congo» (on 1884 in 1908).

After 1908, it became the Museum of Belgian Congo then the royal Museum of central Africa in 1960.
 
History of the museum

To give a window to his Congo and an idea of the economic potential of this region to the Belgians and so to attract investments, Leopold II wanted to do up a kind of museum by staging the original objects, imported in quantity according to a multiple-subject approach: anthropological, ethnological, botanical, zoological, entomological, geological and mineralogical.

Advertising poster for the museum (1910) On the occasion of the World fair of 1897, he made construct in the royal domain of Tervuren the "Palace of colonies" conceived by the Belgian architect Georges Hobé in style art nouveau of epoch. The temporary exhibition which was done up made the nice part
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The Quai Branly museum is set on quai Branly in the 7th district of Paris, where was located the Foreign Exchange Market Department. Ambitious project led by Jacques Chirac (passionated by « primitive art ») and realised by Jean Nouvel, it has been unveiled the 20th of June 2006.

History

Jacques Kerchache, art seller and african art expert, tried from the begining of the 1990’s to bring the « primitive arts » into the Louvre museum. In 1990 he signed in the newpaper Libération an article on this topic ; the same year he met Jacques Chirac, then mayor of Paris.

The latter is elected president of the Republic in 1995. As soon as he arrived at the head of the State, he askes for the opening of a primitive art department at the Louvre museum. One year later he announced the project of creation of a new museum, which quickly meet an opposition, especially  with a strike of the personnal of the Man museum in 1999, to stand in the way of the disassembly of the museum’s collections and criticize the primacy of the aesthetic choice instead of the scientific factors.

An architecture competition is sent out in 1999, designating Jean Nouvel as the architect.

This museum is unveiled the 20th of June 2006 by Jacques Chirac, in the presence of Kofi Annan, Rigoberta Menchú, Paul Okalik, Dominique de Villepin, Lionel Jospin and Jean-Pierre Raffarin. The Quai Branly museum has the status of public administratove institution. It’s placed under the guardianship of the Department of Culture and

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african art / art africain / primitive art / art primitif / arts premiers / art gallery / art tribal / tribal art / l'oeil et la main / galerie d'art premier / Agalom / Armand Auxiètre / www.african-paris.com / www.agalom.com

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David Norden
http://users.telenet.be/african-shop/kerchache.htm

In a crucial moment for the world of Tribal Arts, Ana &Antonio Casanovas from Arte y Ritual and Alain Bovis Gallery present two consecutive exhibitions in Paris with a selection of masterworks from the Kerchache collection:

1.”HOMMAGE” June 16-July 22 2006
2. “NIGERIA” September 13th –October 20th 2006

“HOMAGE TO JACQUES KERCHACHE”

WHY?

The Quai Branly

We want to pay an HOMAGE to Jacques Kerchache and , in his name, give support to an important historical event : the opening of the Quai Branly,one of the most important museums in the world dedicated entirely to “les Arts Premiers”. Jacques was first appointed to asses the selection of art works for the “Pavillion des Sessions” in the Louvre Museum which was conceived as an antennae of the Quai Branly.He had a crucial role in the creation of this innovative museum and was an important member of the Acquisition Committee.

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Anne-Louise Amanieu
Ecole du Louvre
Specialty Arts of Africa
December 2007

Fang mask society Ngil, Gabon, Pavilion des Sessions at the Louvre

IDENTIFICATION

Fang mask the Pavillon des Sessions consists partly of wood covered with kaolin and measure about 70 cm high. It dates from the late nineteenth century or early twentieth. Listed under the inventory number 65-104-1, it comes from the former collection of André Lefèvre and was acquired in 1965 by the Museum of Man.

DESCRIPTION

This great helmet mask represents a stylized human face, whose face and elongated heart-shaped and slightly concave is shared by a long thin nose. On the top of the forehead develops a studded headband for attaching ornaments and who bears a ridge with extension to the front leads by three strokes for joining the nasal bridge and deployed above the eyebrows. The C-shaped ears stand out in high relief on both sides of the face, as the eyes and mouth, they are barely mentioned by simple incisions highlighted by thin slits etched tattoos that recall that arborist and the Fang Ntoumou Mvai by Günter Tessmann.

ANALYSIS

The mask of Ngil (NGI) exists only among the Fang, the people established the Sanaga River (southern Cameroon) Ogooué River (northern Gabon) and in Equatorial Guinea after a period of migration to the eighteenth and

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Jean Paul Barbier-Mueller is a Swiss collector, born in Geneva in 1930.


Biography

He has been under the influence of a passionnate father : poetry, philosophy, musicor science (he got his PhD in biology at the age of 47).

After law studies in Geneva and London, he registers at the Bar and become manager, at the age of 28, of a financial society. In 1960, he creates his own society, the Private Society of Managment, specialized in the managment of the housing stock and construction of social flats.

Collector as his father-in-law Josef Mueller, he goes in for « non-western » arts. With his wife Monique, he creates in 1977 the Barbier-Mueller museum, which organize more than seventy-five exhibitions, most of them attended with importants catalogues, presenting the differents sections of the familial collection, with the contribution of major european, american and asian museums. He carries out or finances researches in Sumatra, in Ivory Coast and Guinea. He’s one of the best expert of the Batak ethnic group, in the north of Sumatra. In may 1997, the Barbier-Mueller precolombian art museum opens opposite to the Picasso museum, in Barcelona. The town council offers a long-time loan from the Nadal Palace to expose around 400 works of art from Pre-Hispanic America.


Jean Paul Barbier-Mueller is also a recognized specialist of the poetry and the french history of the 16th century. Bibliophile since the age of 13, he has gathered one of the most full library devoted to Ronsard and other authors of the Pléiade. Entitled « Ma Bibliothèque poétique », the catalogue of this collection count 7 volumes already published. Jean Paul Barbier-Mueller has also written many articles for journals such as « Bibliothèque d’humanisme »,

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Sir Henry Morton Stanley , GCB, born John Rowlands (January 28, 1841 – May 10, 1904), was a Britishjournalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone. Stanley is often remembered for the words uttered to Livingstone upon finding him: "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?", although there is some question as to authenticity of this now famous greeting.

Biography

Stanley was born in Denbigh, Wales. At the time, his mother, Elizabeth Parry, was nineteen years old. According to Stanley himself, his father, John Rowlands, was an alcoholic; there is some doubt as to his true parentage. His parents were unmarried, so his birth certificate refers to him as a bastard, and the stigma of illegitimacy weighed heavily upon him all his life. He was raised by his grandfather until the age of five. When his guardian died, Stanley stayed at first with cousins and nieces for a short time, but was eventually sent to St. Asaph Union Workhouse for the poor, where overcrowding and lack of supervision resulted in frequent abuse by the older boys. When he was ten, his mother and two siblings stayed for a short while in this workhouse, without Stanley realizing who they were. He stayed until the age of 15. After completing an elementary education, he was employed as a pupil teacher in a National School. In 1859, at the age of 18, he made his passage to the United States in search of a new life. Upon arriving in New Orleans, he absconded from his boat. According to his own declarations, he became friendly with a wealthy trader named Stanley, by accident: he saw Stanley sitting on a chair outside his store and asked him if he had any job opening for a person such as himself. However, he did so in the British style, "Do you want a boy, sir?" As it happened, the childless man had indeed

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Pietro Paolo Savorgnan di Brazzà, best known as Pierre Paul François Camille Savorgnan de Brazza (January 26,1852 - September 14, 1905), was a Franco-Italian explorer, born in Italy and later naturalizedFrenchman. With the backing of the Société de Géographique de Paris, he opened up for France entry along the right bank of the Congo that eventually led to French colonies in Central Africa. His easy manner and great physical charm, as well as his pacific approach among Africans, were his trademarks. Under French colonial rule, Brazzaville, the capital of the Republic of the Congo was named in his honor.

Early  years

Born in Rome on January 26,1852, Pietro Savorgnan di Brazzà was the seventh son of Count Ascanio Savorgnan di Brazzà, a nobleman of Udine with many French connections and Giacinta Simonetti. Pietro was interested in exploration from an early age and won entry to the French naval school at Brest, graduated as an ensign, and went on the French ship Jeanne d'Arc to Algeria.

Exploration to Africa

 

His next ship was the Venus, which stopped at Gabonregularly, and in 1874, de Brazza made two trips, up the Gabon Riverand Ogoue River. He then proposed to the government that he explore the Ogoueto its source, and with the help of friends in high places, including Jules Ferryand Leon Gambetta, he secured partial funding, the rest

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In 1950s, it was possible to find many objects at the price of 10 francs on the flea markets of Europe. The first objects to take value were those of the Benin because they were bronze, then came the fashion of objects to black patina of Ivory Coast, and those of Bakota of the Gabon plated by copper and by brass. The big statues were worth more expensive than the babies, while most often in Africa, if they are small it is to be able to hide them more easily because they have a particular importance.

  

In 1983, a Parisian trader, Jean-Michel Huguenin, makes discover seats Sénoufo. In 1985, another Parisian trader, Réginald Groux, discovers the ladders of lofts Dogon — coming from the cliff of Bandiagara — and Lobi in the region of Mopti (Mali).He acquires a first lot of fifty, makes them socler and sells them in his gallery by making a pretty benefit.

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