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 GALERIE ART PREMIER AFRICAIN GALERIE ART PRIMITIF AFRICAIN AFRICAN ART GALLERY

GALERIE ART PREMIER AFRICAIN GALERIE ART PRIMITIF AFRICAIN AFRICAN ART GALLERY

Art Gallery the Eye and the Hand
Situation : Welcome » Result of the research
Result of the research Result of the research : 'rites'

Ciwara mask, Bambara, Mali
Ciwara mask, Bambara, Mali
€ 25,000.00
Facial Kwele mask with horns, Gabon
Facial Kwele mask with horns, Gabon
€ 150,000.00
Ciwara mask, Bambara, Mali
Ciwara mask, Bambara, Mali
€ 55,000.00

AFRICAN SCULPTURE

Introduction
Context of African sculpture
Places of traditional African sculpture
Canons of African sculpture
Techniques and creative
Aesthetic
Role of African sculpture in the middle
Universal impact of African sculpture
Bibliographic


Introduction

Never has been written about as much ink as traditional African sculpture. Ever, despite all attempts, the man has managed to evacuate his mental field, much less its history, that is to say of his encounter with the other. It has been a cornerstone to measure the "civilization" of the black man and his ability to create capacity variously appreciated throughout history until early this century, cubism helping, the unanimously begins to make the exceptional nature of African sculpture that was always confused with African art which it is a party, probably the most important, if one were to judge solely by the number Parts created that we have reached.

Context of African sculpture

We can talk about African sculpture in isolation from the rest of the arts of Africa south of Sahara. Every word in this area is responsible not only meaningless but history, and if we chose the term "African art" is to fully assume all we have inherited from the past in

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Study on the sacred


Introduction
The sacred: the real paradigm
The flaw in the anthropological research of the sacred
The position of the African researcher
The inconsistency of the true-false paradigm of the irrational
The crucial importance of the event
Ancestor worship: in search of a definition
The premier event: the phenomenon agrarian
Biological Bases
The neurobiological underpinnings
Astronomical Foundations
Conclusion
Bibliography


Introduction


Welcome to this site dedicated to refuting the paradigm of the irrational use explicit about the facts of sacred archaic or traditional societies, and especially African societies.

As a member of these societies, the systematic use of the irrational as ultimate explanation of these facts is offensive and we might seem a lack of rigor in research.

In the approach to ethnology-anthropology there is always explicitly or implicitly begging the question that traditional societies through their culture could not produce something intellectually coherent. This profession of faith explains the systematic irrationality as an explanation of the ultimate sacred facts.

By irrational, what is heard is indeed something wrong, incoherent, that defies logic, in

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THE WAY OF THE AFRICAN RENAISSANCE

Text from the "diplomatic world" in October 1998

In economic terms, Africa figure of poor and marginalized continent. Since the end of the Cold War, it appears as an area that declassified no longer a geopolitical and diplomatic challenge for the major powers. Outside of emergencies that require humanitarian intervention, nobody is really interested in the fate of 700 million men and women who live in this part of the world. "Bankruptcy of development"? "Retard"? Or, rather, strength of African societies, refusing to be trapped neoliberal, and the emergence of alternatives to the Western model of development?


Few studies of the continent really leave room for hope: it keeps repeating that it "Africa sinks" and becomes "a repository of humanity's ills." The image of a "continent wrecked," repeated ad nauseam, seems to summarize all the perceptions of Africa that tend to be synonymous with poverty, corruption and fraud would be the home of violence, conflict and genocide. Images are projected onto Apocalypse "an impoverished Africa in the spiral of conflict." In the late twentieth century, "no continent offers such a spectacle of desolation, war and famine as Africa. (...) Slowly, the place is going to drift. "

The paradigm of "bankruptcy" is the same analytical framework of economic and social

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Anthropologie religieuse

L'anthropologie religieuse est le domaine de l'anthropologie qui étudie le fait religieux, c'est-à-dire non seulement les pratiques ou les rites mais aussi les corpus théologiques savants ou non (mythes, textes sacrés, doctrine) propres à chaque tradition religieuse.
Indépendamment de la pratique religieuse, cette carte du monde représente la proportion de la population de chaque pays déclarant la religion comme quelque chose de « très important » pour elle : de 20% (en bleu) à 90% en rouge foncé ; en gris, pas de sondage disponible.


Essai de définition anthropologique du fait religieux

    * Tylor,1871 : C'est une croyance en des êtres spirituels. Avec Frazer, Tylor fait partie de l'« école » évolutionniste qui soutient le passage du fait religieux par trois stades : la magie, la religion, la science.
    * Durkheim : La religion est une émanation de la société et une célébration de la société par elle-même. Il fait partie de l'« école sociologique française » et tend comme Mauss et Weber à souligner l'importance du lien entre fait religieux et société.
    * Mauss : Ensemble de
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Tradition

La tradition désigne la transmission continue d'un contenu culturel à travers l'histoire depuis un événement fondateur ou un passé immémorial (du latin traditio, tradere, de trans « à travers » et dare « donner », « faire passer à un autre, remettre »). Cet héritage immatériel peut constituer le vecteur d'identité d'une communauté humaine. Dans son sens absolu, la tradition est une mémoire et un projet, en un mot une conscience collective : le souvenir de ce qui a été, avec le devoir de le transmettre et de l'enrichir. Avec l'article indéfini, une tradition peut désigner un mouvement religieux par ce qui l'anime, ou plus couramment, une pratique symbolique particulière, comme par exemple les traditions populaires.

Religion

    * judaïsme : la tradition des prophètes
    * Dans le bouddhisme, une tradition désigne, par extension, l'ensemble des pratiques, des idées et des connaissances d'une école du bouddhisme.
      Article détaillé : tradition bouddhiste.
    * Islam : généalogie de Mahomet
    * Dans le catholicisme, la
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Culture

Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate")[1] is a term that has different meanings. For example, in 1952, Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn compiled a list of 164 definitions of "culture" in Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. However, the word "culture" is most commonly used in three basic senses:

    * excellence of taste in the fine arts and humanities, also known as high culture
    * an integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning
    * the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization or group.

When the concept first emerged in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe, it connoted a process of cultivation or improvement, as in agriculture or horticulture. In the nineteenth century, it came to refer first to the betterment or refinement of the individual, especially through education, and then to the fulfillment of national aspirations or ideals. In the mid-nineteenth century, some scientists used the term "culture" to refer to a universal human capacity.

In the twentieth century, "culture" emerged as a concept central to anthropology, encompassing all human phenomena that are not purely results of human genetics.
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Ethnology

Ethnology (from the Greek ἔθνος, ethnos meaning "habit, custom, convention") is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the ethnic, racial, and/or national divisions of humanity.

Compared to ethnography, the study of single groups through direct contact with the culture, ethnology takes the research that ethnographers have compiled and then compares and contrasts different cultures. The term ethnology is credited to Adam Franz Kollár who used and defined it in his Historiae ivrisqve pvblici Regni Vngariae amoenitates published in Vienna in 1783. Kollár's interest in linguistic and cultural diversity was aroused by the situation in his native multi-lingual Kingdom of Hungary and his roots among its Slovaks, and by the shifts that began to emerge after the gradual retreat of the Ottoman Empire in the more distant Balkans.

Among the goals of ethnology have been the reconstruction of human history, and the formulation of cultural invariants, such as the incest taboo and culture change, and the formulation of generalizations about "human nature", a concept which has been criticized since the 19th century by various philosophers (Hegel, Marx, structuralism, etc.). In some parts of the world ethnology has developed along independent paths of investigation and pedagogical doctrine, with cultural anthropology becoming dominant especially in the United States, and social anthropology in Great Britain. The distinction between the three terms is increasingly blurry. Ethnology has been
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“Africa Remix” featured the work of over 100 African artists in a 2,200-sq.m exhibition space. With paintings by Chéri Samba, installations by Barthélémy Toguo, drawings by Frédéric Bruly Bouabré and photographs by Guy Tillim, “Africa Remix” revealed the varied facets of Africa’s contemporary arts scene.

The exhibition examined contemporary African art not only from an aesthetic angle but also from historical, political and ideological perspectives.

- Total pledges support for African art with the ”Africa Remix” exhibition in Paris -

So near, and yet so far: Africa is an enigma that continues to exert a strange fascination for many. “Africa Remix” was an invitation to reflect on what Africa really means – to explore and rediscover it by straying from the beaten path of commonplace ideas and platitudes. As Total has a strong presence in Africa, we are all too aware of the difficulties affecting the continent, but we’re also committed to bringing African culture the recognition it deserves.

Africa Remix

Under the artistic direction of Simon Njami (photo), an international team of curators (see dates and facts as well as the photo) has assembled this overview of the artistic production in Africa and the African diaspora. 88 artists show works from the last 10 years, among them several specially
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African art

African art constitutes one of the most diverse legacies on earth. Though many casual observers tend to generalize "traditional" African art, the continent is full of peoples, societies, and civilizations, each with a unique visual special culture. The definition also includes the art of the African Diasporas, such as the art of African Americans. Despite this diversity, there are some unifying artistic themes when considering the totality of the visual culture from the continent of Africa.

    * Emphasis on the human figure: The human figure has always been a the primary subject matter for most African art, and this emphasis even influenced certain European traditions. For example in the fifteenth century Portugal traded with the Sapi culture near the Ivory Coast in West Africa, who created elaborate ivory saltcellars that were hybrids of African and European designs, most notably in the addition of the human figure (the human figure typically did not appear in Portuguese saltcellars). The human figure may symbolize the living or the dead, may reference chiefs, dancers, or various trades such as drummers or hunters, or even may be an anthropomorphic representation of a god or have other votive function. Another common theme is the inter-morphosis of human and animal.

Yoruba bronze head sculpture, Ife, Nigeria c. 12th century A.D.

    * Visual abstraction: African artworks tend to favor visual abstraction over naturalistic representation. This is because many African artworks generalize stylistic norms. Ancient Egyptian art, also usually thought of as naturalistically depictive, makes use of highly abstracted and regimented visual canons, especially in painting, as well as the use of different colors to represent the qualities and characteristics of an individual being depicted.

    * Emphasis on sculpture: African artists
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Masks

The viewing of masks is often restricted to certain peoples or places, even when used in performance, or masquerade. African masks manifest spirits of ancestors or nature as well as characters that are spiritual and social forces. During a masquerade, which is performed during ceremonial occasions such as agricultural, initiation, leadership and funerary rites, the mask becomes the otherworld being. When collected by Western cultures, masks are often displayed without their costume ensemble and lack the words, music and movement, or dance, that are integral to the context of African masquerades. Visually, masks are often a combination of human and animal traits. They can be made of wood, natural or man-made fibers, cloth and animal skin. Masks are usually worn with costumes and can, to some extent, be categorized by form, which includes face masks, crest masks, cap masks, helmet masks, shoulder masks, and fiber and body masks. Maskettes, which are shaped like masks, are smaller and are not worn on or over the face. They may be worn on an individual’s arm or hip or hung on a fence or other structure near the performance area.

Sculpture

The cultures of Africa have created a world-renowned tradition of three-dimensional and relief sculpture. Everyday and ceremonial works of great delicacy and surface detail are fashioned by artists using carving, modeling, smithing and casting techniques. Masks, figures, musical instruments, containers, furniture, tools and equipment are all part of the sculptor’s repertoire. The human figure is perhaps the most prominent sculptural form in Africa, as it has been for millennia. Male and female images in wood, ivory, bone, stone, earth, fired clay, iron and copper alloy embody cultural values, depict the ideal and represent spirits, ancestors and deities. Used in a broad range of contexts--initiation, healing, divination,
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What a body?


I have a body good to me, it seems, and that's because I'm me. I count among my properties and pretend to carry him on my full sovereignty. I think therefore unique and independent. But it is an illusion because there is no human society where it is believed that the body is worth by itself. Every body is created, not only by their fathers and mothers. It is not made by one who has it, but by others. No more in New Guinea, the Amazon or Africa than in Western Europe, it is thought as a thing. Instead, it is the particular form of relationship with the otherness that constitutes the person. Depending on the perspective of comparative anthropology adopted here is that other, respectively, the other sex, animal species, the dead or the divine (secularized in the modern age, in the teleology of living). Yes, my body is what reminds me that I find myself in a world populated by example, ancestors, gods, enemies or people of the opposite sex. My body really mine? It is he who I do not belong, I is not alone and that my destiny is to live in society.
Description

224 pages 24 x 26 cm

240 color illustrations

1 map

retail price: 45 €

isbn 2-915133-17-4

Co-published Branly / Flammarion
curator

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Ciwara


African chimeras

Masks, headdresses Ciwara are among the better known pieces of African art. Incomparable masterpieces cultures Bamana (Mali) and Senufo (Mali, Côte d'Ivoire), enigmatic and emblematic symbols of African art, clichés abound when talking about these famous head crests. There are few so-called traditional African sculptures which have aroused so much admiration from fans and collectors. This catalog is intended to fill this gap and provide a scientific focus on the subject. He cites the permeability of borders and artistic use of such objects do not come out only during agricultural rites but on several occasions during the year (entertainment, important ceremonies such as funerals, fight against bites snake, ...). It also highlights the richness of the museum, unique in international collections, with his fifty-five masks reproduced at the end of the book.
Description

96 pages format 20 x 26 cm

70 illustrations and 55 photos to the catalog raisonné

Maps

retail price: 25 €

isbn 2-915133-15-8 / 88-7439-318-0

Co-published Branly / 5 Continents
curator

Lorenz Homberger, Deputy Director of the Museum Rietberg, Zurich
authors

Jean-Paul Colleyn, study director at the EHESS

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Tangle of ropes, accumulation of disparate elements, small heaps unspeakable, are the objects of divination in Africa in this book. These figures of the formless, sometimes perceived as loathsome and strange, are much more familiar we suppose at first, and do not speak of anything but life and countless son's existence, which continue to establish and discard. It is not that of any tribute to Africa and mysterious fetish, but to honor human creativity and variety of forms it knows borrow.

Exposure. Musée du Quai Branly (2009) Recipes of the Gods: the fetish aesthetic Actes Sud € 19.90
Group under the leadership of Jacques Kerchache African Art & Citadels Mazenod € 199.00
Faik-Nzuji, Clementine M. African Arts: signs and symbols boeck From € 42.00
Collective Imprints of Africa: African Art, Modern Art Workshop € 9.91
Basson, Mbog Aesthetics of African Art: The Symbolic and complexity Harmattan € 21.00
Diagne, Souleymane Bachir Leopold Sedar Senghor, African art as philosophy: an essay Riveneuve € 15.00
Exposure. Afrikamuseum (2007-2008) Ubangi, art and culture in the heart of South Africa Acts € 99.95
Alain Lecomte art, magic and medicine in Black Africa Gallery Alain Lecomte € 35.00
Exposure. Dapper Foundation (2007-2008) Musée Dapper Pet € 45.00
Exposure.

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Image Motherhoods

MOTHERHOODS

 

ART GALLERY L'OEIL ET LA MAIN

41 RUE DE VERNEUIL 75007 PARIS

 EXHIBITION FROM THE 4TH OF JUNE TO THE 30TH OF SEPTEMBER 2009

 WWW.AFRICAN-PARIS.COM


The image of the mother carrying her child is very present in Westerner imaginary, reflecting the importance of the woman not only in her wife role, but also as a mother. In addition to their social and economic importance, the African mothers also have a quasi-magic capacity. The birth is indeed regarded as a godsend, because this is the child who later will take care of his/her parents, become old, and will work for them as they worked for him. Moreover, in many cultures, the woman is often a priestess specialist in the rites and a person in charge of the worship, and many spirits are female ones. This fact partly explains the importance of the female image in the African sculpture. Although a child is raised by the members of the family extended, the link between him/her and his/her mother remains very strong, especially at the period of early childhood, the carved works presented at the time of this exhibition are a proof of that fact. Motherhood represents the female principle par excellence. But are african motherhoods statues of mother with child or statues of mother and child? Which are the relationships between the mother and the child in a sculpture of motherhood?

Very often mother and child do not set up a
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De l’africanisme aux études africaines Textes et « humanités » Alain Ricard Tout discours sur l'Afrique, et en particulier l'Afrique noire, ne peut il relever que de la passion, voire de lacompassion ? N’y a t-il que les fous d’Afrique – titre d’un livre récent – pour s’intéresser à elle ? Quelles formes de raison peut-il convoquer ?La première qui se présenta fut géographique. Sorte de page blanche de notre humanité jusqu'au XIXe siècle, l'Afrique a été inscrite avec nos routes, nos cartes, nos frontières ; aujourd'hui, les images satellitaires ne nous en laisentrien ignorer. Nous savons au mètre près ce qui se passe à Kisangani en guerre, là où Stanley donna à des chutes son nom : il avait compris que cette courbe du fleuve Congo était le centre du continent, il pensait en géographe et en stratège... Cette Afrique des images reste face à nous, extérieure : ne relève-t-elle pas aussi d'autres formes de raison plus intérieures, voire existentielles ? Quel immense murmure monte de la forêt ? Que dit-il ? Ces Africains ne sont-ils qued'empruntés francophones ou de pompeux anglophones ? Des bégayeurs maladroits ou des volubiles irresponsables ?L'inscription géographique, qui en reste à l'image, est trop facilement la proie de la marchandise. Aujourd'hui il nous faut le son, le discours. Des langues en expansion composent d'autres circulations que nous ne capterons pas avec nos satellites. Il nous faut passer de l'œil à l'oreille, du regard à l'écoute... Les blancs des cartes Les sciences humaines redécouvrent l’afrique, titrait un journal du soir après un colloque tenu à Nantes – « Les sciences de l’homme

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Jean Rouch

Jean Rouch (Paris - 31 May 1917, Niger - 18 February 2004) was a French filmmaker and anthropologist.

He is considered to be one of the founders of the cinéma vérité in France, sharing the aesthetics of the direct cinema in the US pionered by Richard Leacock,D.A. Pennebaker and Albert and David Maysles. Rouch's practice as a filmmaker for over sixty years in Africa, was characterized by the idea of shared anthropology. Influenced by his discovery of surealism in his early twenties, many of his films blur the line between fiction and documentary, creating a new style of ethnofiction. He was also hailed by the French New Wave as one of theirs. His seminal film Me a Black (Moi un Noir) pionered the technique of jump cut popularized by Jean-Luc Godard. Godard said of Rouch in the Cahiers du Cinéma (Notebooks on Cinema) n°94 April 1959 "In charge of research for the Musée de l'Homme (French, "Museum of Man") Is there a better definition for a filmmaker?". Along his career, Rouch was no stranger to controversy. He would often repeat "Glory to he who brings dispute".

Biography

He began his long association with African subjects in 1941 after working as civil engineer supervising a construction project in Niger. However, shortly afterwards he returned to France to participate in the Resistance. After the war, he did a brief stint as a journalist with Agence France-Presse before returning to Africa where he become an influential anthropologist and sometimes controversial
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Image Michel Leiris


Michel Leiris, (né le 20 avril 1901 à Paris et mort le 30 septembre 1990, à Saint-Hilaire dans l'Essonne) est un écrivain, ethnologue et critique d'art français, mais aussi Satrape du Collège de Pataphysique.

Michel Leiris est né au sein d'une famille bourgeoise cultivée habitant au 41 rue d'Auteuil dans le seizième arrondissement.
Sa famille le pousse contre son gré à faire des études de chimie alors qu'il est attiré par l'art et l'écriture. Il fréquente les milieux artistiques après 1918, notamment les surréalistes jusqu'en 1929. Il se lie d'amitié avec Max Jacob, André Masson, Picasso, etc. Son œuvre a marqué les recherches ethnographiques et ethnologiques.

En 1935, dans L'Âge d'homme, voici comme il se décrit :

    « Je viens d’avoir trente-quatre ans, la moitié de la vie. Au physique, je suis de taille moyenne, plutôt petit. J’ai des cheveux châtains coupés court afin d’éviter qu’ils ondulent, par crainte aussi que ne se développe une calvitie menaçante. Autant que je puisse en juger, les traits caractéristiques de ma physionomie sont : une nuque très droite, tombant verticalement comme une muraille ou une falaise, marque classique (si l'on en croit les astrologues) des personnes nées sous le signe du Taureau ; un front

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Datation

Littéralement, la datation est l'attribution d'une date. Ce terme peut donc s’appliquer à un évènement passé, un objet, un document, un fossile, une couche géologique ou encore un niveau archéologique.
Il désigne globalement la démarche, scientifique ou non, qui consiste à déterminer l’intervalle de temps séparant l’élément daté du temps présent.

On parle de « datation absolue » lorsque la datation mise en œuvre aboutit à un résultat chiffré exprimé en unité de temps (années, secondes, etc.). Par opposition, l’expression « datation relative » désigne la démarche qui consiste à déterminer l'ordre chronologique d'évènements ou d'objets du passé, sans connaître leurs âges réels. Une confusion est parfois faite entre les deux, lorsque dans le cadre d'une datation relative, la chronologie s'étend jusqu'au présent — ainsi, les « âges » des périodes définies par datation relative en stratigraphie sont souvent pris pour argent comptant, bien qu'ils n'aient de sens que comme des intervalles de temps circonscrits définis par rapport à tous les autres.

Datation par les sources écrites

Elle concerne la période historique. Avant le milieu du XXe siècle, les sources écrites (textes, inscriptions, etc.) constituaient les principaux éléments de datation à la disposition des historiens pour effectuer la datation des évènements historiques, avec les risques d’imprécisions et d’erreur que cela comporte.

Datation relative

Avant le
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Masques du Gabon

Les masques traditionnels ont toujours tenu une place importante au sein des cultures gabonaises. Chaque ethnie a les siens, dédiés à des cérémonies variées mais toutes importantes dans le rythme de vie de ces populations.

Masque Okuyi

Les masques Okuyi sont utilisés dans la tribu Myénée. Ils sont utilisés pour accompagner les funérailles ou les retraits de deuil.

Symbolique et utilisation

Ce sont des masques d'ancêtres. Ils expriment la sérénité de leurs anciens qui les protègent et les conseillent depuis le royaume des morts. Le porteur du masque est recouvert d'un costume de raphia. Durant les cérémonies, il pousse des cris sauvages destinés à effrayer les spectateurs.

Les masques noirs sont quant à eux probablement dotés d'une fonction judiciaire.

Caractéristiques

Masque anthropomorphe blanc, sa face est peinte au kaolin. La couleur blanche du kaolin est
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African traditional religion

African traditional religions, also referred to as African indigenous religions or African tribal religions, is a term referring to a variety of religions indigenous to the continent of Africa. Like tribal religions from other parts of the world, African religious traditions are defined largely along community lines.

Traditional African religions involve teachings, practices, and rituals that lend structure to indigenous African societies. These traditional African religions also play a large part in the cultural understanding and awareness of the people of their communities.


African Traditional Religion and Language

Most traditional African religions have, for most of their existence, been orally/spiritually (rather than scripturally) transmitted. Thus, linguistic experts such as Christopher Ehret and Placide Tempels have applied their knowledge of languages towards reconstructing the original core beliefs of the followers of these traditions. The four linguistic phylums spoken in Africa are: Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Congo, and Khoi-San.

Afro-Asiatic Spirituality

According to linguist Christopher Ehret, traditional religion among Afro-Asiatic-speaking (Afrasan) peoples was originally henotheistic in nature. In this sense, each clan gave
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