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Result of the research Result of the research : 'river'

 

The Authenticity of African Sculptures

by Henri Kamer

The issue of authenticity of African art has been central to collectors for decades.  Henri Kamer, who was president of the International Arts Experts Association at the time, published an outstanding account of the state of the matter in Artes d'Afrique Noire, No. 12 (1974).  The text  that follows is extracted from an English translation of that article, and has been edited further.  The original includes a number of illustrations.  They are not included here because I believe the text suffices without them. 

The original version, including the illustrations, in French and with the English translation, is 

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Pol Pierre Gossiaux
 
Titulaire de la Chaire
d’Anthropologie des systèmes symboliques
et d’Ethnosémiologie de l’Art africain
Université de Liège (Belgium)
 
PP.Gossiaux@ulg.ac.be
 
 
 
 
 
Le Bwame  du Léopard
des
Babembe  (Kivu-Congo)
 
Rituel initiatique et rituel funéraire
 
Avec 52 illustrations
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
          2
     
 
 
 
Table des matières (1ère partie)
 
 
 
 
 
Avant dire. Présentation du Bwamè                                    
 
 
3
Fondements de l’anthropologie
et de l’ethnosémiologie bembe
 
10
Exorciser l’animal
 
Fondements du savoir bembe
 
 
15
Les animaux et la titulature du Bwamè
       
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African Art on the Internet
 
 
 
15th Triennial Symposium on African Art, Arts Council of the African Studies Association, 2011, Wednesday, March 23 - Saturday, March 26, 2011, UCLA, Los Angeles, California
http://www.acasaonline.org/conf_next.htm
Addis Art - Ethiopian Art and Artists Page
Contemporary Ethiopian art and artists - paintings, sculptures and digital art work by students and professionals from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. University instructor, Getahun Assefa's paintings, drawings, sculpture, digital art. Also work by his brother, Tesfaye Assefa. Based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. [KF] http://www.addisart.com/
Addis Art - Nouveau Art from Ethiopia
Artists include Shiferaw Girma and Lulseged Retta. Photographs of each artist's work, a biography, and video. Founded by Mesai Haileleul. [KF] http://www.addis-art.com/
Adire African Textiles - Duncan Clarke
History, background, and photographs of adire, adinkra, kente, bogolan, Yoruba aso-oke, akwete, ewe, kuba, and nupe textiles. The symbolism of images is often provided. One can purchase textiles as well. Clarke's Ph.D. dissertation (School of Oriental and African Studies) is on Yoruba men's weaving. See also the Adire African Textiles blog. Based in London. http://www.adireafricantextiles.com/
Afewerk Tekle
"Ethiopia’s leading artist." Biography, his paintings, sculptures, mosaics, murals, art in the artist's home. Afewerk created the stained-glass windows at the entrance of Africa Hall, headquarters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. "In 1964, he became the first winner of the Haile Selassie I prize for Fine Arts." "In 2000, he was one of the few chosen World Laureates by the council of the ABI on the occasion of the 27th
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Image Art Africain, formes et rites
MEYER Laure
Art Africain, formes et rites
Détails sur le produit:
Relié: 199 pages - Editeur: Assouline (Juillet 2001) - Langue: Français 
ISBN-10: 284323283X - ISBN-13: 978-2843232831
 
Descriptions du produit:
Quatrième de couverture
Est-ce une oeuvre d'art? Oui, certainement, une grande oeuvre d'art. Mais pas de l'art pour l'art, à la manière occidentale. Il s'agit d'un objet lourd de sens religieux. Le voir sous un jour uniquement esthétique le priverait d'une grande part de sa puissance. En Afrique, la plupart des sculptures ont un sens religieux caché qui double leur aspect visuel. Quand on comprend le pourquoi d'une oeuvre, on perçoit mieux sa nature profonde. Le but de ce livre est de révéler le côté mystérieux des oeuvres
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Image Sculptures des Trois Volta
MASSA Gabriel, LAURET Jean-Claude
 
Sculptures des Trois Volta (ISBN-10: 2842800656 - ISBN-13: 978-2842800659) - Broché: 175 pages - Editeur : Sepia (1 janvier 2001) 
Langue : Français 
 
Présentation de l'éditeur
 
Représentatives des statuaires lobi, bobo, bwa, gurunsi et mossi, ethnies du Burkina Faso, riveraines des Trois Volta, les 135 pièces présentées dans cet ouvrage soigné n'avaient, pour la plupart, jamais été montrées au public. Statues, cannes, sièges, portes, étriers de poulie de métier à tisser... donnent un large aperçu de cet art
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Image Where Gods and Mortals Meet: Continuity and Renewal in Urhobo Art
FOSS Perkins
Where Gods and Mortals Meet: Continuity and Renewal in Urhobo Art
Détails sur le produit: - Relié: 152 pages - Editeur: Snoeck-Ducaji & Zoon; Édition: illustrated edition (10 mai 2004) - Langue: Anglais - ISBN-10: 9053495061 - ISBN-13: 978-9053495063
Book Description: The Urhobo peoples occupy the western fringe of the Niger River delta in southern Nigeria, an area rich with oil reserves. Since the 1970s, the petroleum industry has brought worldwide wealth and attention to Nigeria, but tragically has also detracted from broad-based economic progress as flow stations, flare-offs, drilling platforms and pipelines have proliferated. As rural economies suffered an inevitable decline, the custom of maintaining traditional Urhobo art has experienced a parallel atrophy. The resultant decline in Urhobo culture has prompted a response among many Urhobo who want to celebrate and preserve their traditions for future generations. The Museum for African Art in New York makes a major contribution to this effort through the presentation of Where Gods and Mortals meet, the first exhibition to showcase Urhobo arts. The exhibition introduces never-before-seen Urhobo art and footage of cultural performances, from yesterday and today. This accompanying catalogue includes approximately 80 works of art: traditional art from the historical period 1850 to 1975, including monumental wood figures, metal and clay sculpture, and masks and costumes with accompanying poetry and song; a small selection of contemporary work by Bruce Onobrakpeya, an Urhobo by birth and one of Africa's foremost artists; plus photos and video footage of extraordinary multimedia masquerades. Edited by Perkins Foss.Essays by John Picton, Perkins Foss, Michael Y. Nabofa, G.G. Darah, Tanure Ojaide, and Bruce Onobrakpeya. Foreword by Peter Ekeh. Hardcover, 9 x 12 in. / 152 pgs / 141 color and 7
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Full text, digitalised by Lies Strijker and presented by the .Centre Aequatoria
Notes on the digitalisation and presentation


[Cover]

[1: empty]

[2]
IMPRIMI POTEST
Kanzenze, 12-2-1952
P. Simeon, o.m.f.
Sup. Reg.

IMPRIMATUR
Luabo-Kamina, 30-5-1952
+VICTOR PETRUS KEUPPENS
Vic. Ap. de Lulua


[3]

BANTU PHILOSOPHY
by
The Revd. Father PLACIDE TEMPELS

(Translated into English from "La Philosophie Bantoue" the French Version by Dr. A. Rubbens of Fr. Tempels' original work. The Revd. Colin King, M.A. Translator.)

With a Foreword to the English Edition by Dr Margaret Read, C.B.E.Ph. D.,M.A., formerly Professor of Education and Head of the Department Of Education in Tropical Areas, The

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THE NEW CONGO COLLECTION

During the summer of 1912 the Museum acquired by purchase a collection of about two thousand 
specimens consisting of weapons, utensils, ornaments, clothing and images from a number of African 
tribes living in the Congo basin.  This collection was, for the most part, obtained from the natives by the 
well-known German traveler, Frobenius.    

in a way which served at least to show what a variety of artistic activities and  what a rich  culture  the in 
a way which served at least to show what a variety of artistic activities and  what a rich  culture  the 
native Congo peoples possess.     
native Congo peoples possess.     


Visitors  had  an  opportunity   of   admiring the wonderful carved wooden boxes and cups,
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‘African Vision: The Walt Disney-Tishman African Art Collection’
 
This female figure, made of ivory and standing 37 inches tall, was made in the early Nineteenth Century by Edo peoples in the Benin kingdom court style, and was probably intended for an altar to a queen mother. It is one of the first two objects purchased by Paul and Ruth Tishman in 1959. "Ivory can be almost universally interpreted as a symbol of importance and wealth,” says exhibition curator Bryna Freyer.
WASHINGTON D.C.:Most Americans know little about the vast and diverse continent of Africa, much less the arts created there. Dark and primitive, the arts of the African peoples reflect the rituals of life, stripped to the most basic interpretive forms both conceptually and artistically.
Celebrating the arts of Africa and the profound role that they have played in molding Twentieth Century Abstraction and Modernist art in the "West" is the Smithsonian's newest exhibition, "African Vision: The Walt Disney-Tishman African Art Collection." It is on view through September 7, 2008, at The Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of African Art (NMAA).
 
"African Vision" showcases 88 outstanding artworks, part of a larger collection donated to the NMAA, that represents the largest gift of sculpture in the museum's history.
 
In 1959, Paul and Ruth Tishman began their collection with the purchase of two pieces of art from the Benin kingdom — an early Nineteenth Century ivory female figure standing 37 inches tall, made in the court style by the Edo peoples, and a 28-inch-tall, Eighteenth Century copper alloy mask that was worn by a divine-healer in masquerade
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Musées

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Tribal Art - Jean-Baptiste BacquaSee the continuation... ]

Walker Evans

Walker Evans
Il est né le 3 novembre 1903, à Saint-Louis, Missouri. Il étudie au Williams College en 1922-1923 et à la Sorbonne en 1926. Evans débute la photographie en 1930. Il obtient une bourse de la Fondation John-Simon-Guggenheim en 1940, 1941 et 1959. Il entre au magazine Time en 1945 et à Fortune en 1965. Cette même année, il devient professeur de photographie à l'école d'art de l'Université Yale. Il est mort le 10 avril 1975, à New Haven, Connecticut.
On connaît notamment son travail sur la Grande dépression, participant au programme de la Farm Security Administration. Les images de métayers dans l'Alabama, au même titre que celles de Dorothea Lange, comptent parmi les icônes du monde moderne.
On remarque dans son travail les regards des sujets fixant l'objectif de Walker Evans : ici pas de doute le sujet se sait photographié, pour autant il ne se compose pas un visage de circonstance orné d'un sourire obligatoire. Ici la photographie ne se contente pas de montrer, elle interroge le spectateur, l'américain des années 1930 : si le sujet se laisse photographier dans cette posture, c'est que son regard a quelque chose à nous dire. Ce n'est peut-être plus nous qui le regardons mais lui qui nous accuse.
Cette franchise du photographe préserve une dignité humaine mise à mal par la misère qui se laisse voir dans les vêtements en loques.
Cet aspect de ses photos est
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a
by Peter Walsh
 
"MEMORY: Luba Art and the Making of History," one of the largest and most important exhibitions of African art ever to appear in the Boston area, will be on view at the Davis Museum and Cultural Center from February 5 through June 7, 1998. Organized by The Museum for African Art in New York City, this critically acclaimed exhibition of exceptionally beautiful artworks explores for the first time in an American museum exhibition the intricate and fascinating culture of the Luba of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire). More than 80 important and beautiful objects are included in the show.
 
Since it opened in New York City in February 1996, MEMORY has received enormous popular and critical praise. The New York Times described it as "everything an exhibition ought to be. Visually riveting and built on a theme as philosophically complex as it is poetic, it has the pace and pull of an unfolding epic... MEMORY... brings to vivid life an art that is both a wonder of formal invention... and a sovereign vehicle for profound ideas."
 
MEMORY will include standing figures, staffs of office, ceremonial weapons, masks, divining tools and amulets as well as fine examples of lukasas, or Luba "memory boards," all of which the Luba used as elaborate visual symbols to record their cultural memories, histories, traditions, and royal lineages. The show and its accompanying catalogue are the culmination of a decade of intense and path-breaking research and study
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Art primitif : prix du désir, prix de l’objet
AuteurRolande Bonnain-Dulon du même auteur
CRH/EHESS
24, bd de Magenta
75010 ParisRolande.Bonnain-Dulon@ehess.fr
« L’art primitif a influencé tout l’art contemporain.
C’est normal qu’il ait un prix. »(Jeune marchand parisien)
 
« Noirs désirs » [Télérama, 26/06/2003], « Bas les masques » [Libération, 1/07/2001], « La ruée vers l’or noir » [Le Figaro, 2/07/2001], « Les sortilèges de l’art africain » [Le Figaro, dossier Patrimoine, 26/10/2001], tous ces titres (et d’autres non moins accrocheurs) ont annoncé et suivi la dispersion aux enchères publiques en juillet 2001, soit un an après sa mort, de la collection d’art primitif d’Hubert Goldet, grand amateur et cofondateur de la revue ArtPress. La vente, qui avait duré deux jours et attiré amateurs, marchands et curieux d’Europe et d’Amérique, avait joui d’un énorme succès : 644 lots proposés et vendus pour la somme de 88,4 millions de francs avec les frais soit 13,5 millions d’euros. Cet événement témoigne, s’il en est encore besoin, que ce domaine de l’art, l’un des derniers découverts par l’Occident, n’est plus confidentiel et déborde le cadre du petit monde des initiés. Depuis son ouverture en avril 2000, le pavillon des
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Kongo Nail Fetishes from the Chiloango River Area
By Ezio Bassani
 
Originally published in African Arts - April 1977, Volume X, Number 3
In the nineteenth century, ethnologists who collected and catalogued objects of art from Africa were not concerned with 
discovering the names of the artists or even their ethnic identities; usually, broad indications of geographic origins, such as 
"the Lower Congo," "the region of the White Nile," or the "River Uelle" were deemed sufficient identification. In addition, 
because these objects were regarded merely as documents of a mode of life inferior to that of Western societies, no effort 
was made to categorize them stylistically. Although during the first ten years of this century, French and German artists 
revealed the artistic independence and importance of African sculpture, scholars persisted in considering the works of 
African carvers as popular,
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The Pende


The Pende pushed north by the Lunda, during the 17th, settled in an area located between Loango and Kasai regions. Two hundred years later Tchokwe invaded the territories for when they migrated north from Angola, but were forced to return the territories annexed by the Belgian colonizers. The 500000 Pende mainly farmers are not governed by a central authority but by the heads of households, known as the Djogo, sometimes aided by the noble nobles. Young men are organized by age group, and must pass through various initiatives including that of circumcision during adolescence.

Art Pende can be divided into two traditions, arts, the first comes from Western Pende who live along the river Lodango, the second focuses on the eastern Pende along the Kasai River.


Masks:

The Western Pende have used a dozen different types of masks during their ceremony, they have eyes looking down a triangular nose, and sometimes leaving a protruding mouth see the teeth.

Often found three types of masks in Western collections. The first long-beard is called Kiwoyo Muyombo. The second known Mangu, show the features distorted, probably evoking the effects of an epileptic seizure. The third mask Phumbu chief called, has a hair divided into three parts.

Masks and helmets masks, associated with Pende, Oriental Minyangi are called respectively, and Giphogo. Worn by dancers during initiation ceremonies, they have

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The Luba


The Luba Empire was founded in 1585, in the depression of the Upemba by King Kongholo, his nephew and successor Llunga Kalala, enlarges rapidly until the kingdom territory on the left bank of the River Lualaba. At the height of the kingdom more than a million people live in tribes, various paid tribute to King Luba. At the end of XIX with DVANCED Ovimbudu of Angola and the raids of slave traders Islamic empire s'affiblit and collapsed when the Belgian colonists arrived.

The economy lm'empire Luba came from payment of tribute and redistribution of resources from agriculture, fishing and hunting, and mining.

Luba artists have created many objects related to the activity of the court, the prestige objects were usually decorated with female figures everywhere in Luba art. Because of the huge area covered by the empire there are wide variations in the corpus stylistic art Luba.


Masks:


Luba masks rare, are found mainly in the eastern part of the empire. One type of mask Luba, very similar to the masks of kifwebe Songye but has more rounded features. There are very few zoomorphic masks.


Statues:


Luba artists have sculpted female statues standing or kneeling Mboko called, cleverly taking a cut, and who served during the ceremonies of divination. The statues stand uncommon, and probably representing the forest spirits or ancestors are covered with a

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Image Songye people

Linguistically, the Songye form part of the Luba, world, itself part of the Bantu group. Indeed there is a century old inter relation between the Songye and Luba, and they therefore share many cultural traits. Some art forms are part of this, shared heritage, according to the oral tradition the founding chieftains of the first luba kingdom, were of songye origins, and it is the Songye who introduced the idea of social stratification to the Luba and consequently the first luba chieftains are said to be of Songye Ancestry.

 

ENVIRONMENT

The Songye used to live in a forest environment till the end of the first half of the second millennium. Slowly their habitat became more savannah-like. We can still find traces of this former forest habitat in some of the art they produce. For example the costume worn with the Kifwebe mask must be entirely made from products originating in the forest from such as bark, pelts fibers etc. Today the Songye mainly live in the savannah but pockets of forest remain in their territory.

The Songye occupy a very large area in the north of the southeastern quadrant of the republic democratic of Congo.

Due to the vastness of the songye territory, it is obvious that regional stylistic, iconic and typological, exist in the ritual art produced. Some of these are the result of cross influences with their immediate neighbors.

 

NEIGHBORS

To the North of the Songye territory, live the Sungu, Tetela, the western Kusu. In the northwest we will find a few luba chiefdoms. To the west the Luntu, Luba – kassaï Kete and Binji peoples resides; one can even find pockets of Chokwe people in the southwest of Songye territory. To the south of the Songye we find a variety of luba speacking, polities, the same is true, for eastern frontier where in addition to the eastern kusu, we find Luba, Hemba, Kunda, Lumbu and Buyu people. Judging from their

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Image yaka

Arts of Africa first Black Arts Spring 1981 No. 77
When we examine the significance of an African mask, we do not seek to know what the "message" it provides, by virtue of some essential notion of disguise and by his presence, but rather what kind of continuum it belongs. The masks are at the confluence of pictorial traditions, oral and functional none appears (under secular unable to recognize the subjects and even less discernible. The understanding of pictorial code used requires not only a review but a review of developed components as needed through the original context. Let us offer an example of the image with respect to the buffalo in the region of Zaire Kwango-Kwilu South West (1).
Synceros caffer, the largest of African cattle is a massive animal, black, cropped hair, measuring 1.50 m at the shoulder and weighing nearly a ton (900 kg.) (Fig. 1). Its heavy horns have a spacing of one meter, are curved downward and inward and form large lumps to their bases. This animal, originally occupied the central, eastern and southern Africa, frequenting the open plains, open woods and river beds and marshes bordered by reeds. Commonly preview herds of a dozen to a hundred heads, he used to graze and graze the early morning and again at dusk, seeking shade during the hottest hours but sometimes moving at night . Females do not carry a calf for about eleven months.

Considered peaceful, was injured when he can become, for hunters, the most dangerous animal of any big game on the continent (Fig. 2). He is known for his

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Image African Art Exhibition of 1923

This is a copy of the catalogue of the exhibition of 1923 in Brooklyn Museum, In 1903 Stewart Culin became the founding curator of the department of ethnology at the museum of the Brooklyn institute of arts and sciences, now the Brooklyn museum Culin a self taught ethnologist built the foundation of four curatorial collections for the museum, acquiring objects representing African Asian native American and estaern European culture

 

 

 

Culin was among the first curator to recognize museum installation as an art form, he was also among the first to display ethnological as art objects, not as ethnographic specimens. This approach is evidenced in his exhibition “primitive negro art”

 

 

 

The exhibition opened in april 1923 and displayed African objects he had acquired in Europe from dealers. Along with his colleagues Culin set the parameters for cultural representation in museum through his collection decisions and innovative installations.

 

 

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