By continuing your visit to this site , you accept the use of cookies to provide content and services best suited to your interests.
 GALERIE ART PREMIER AFRICAIN GALERIE ART PRIMITIF AFRICAIN AFRICAN ART GALLERY

GALERIE ART PREMIER AFRICAIN GALERIE ART PRIMITIF AFRICAIN AFRICAN ART GALLERY

Art Gallery the Eye and the Hand
Situation : Welcome » Result of the research
Result of the research Result of the research : 'pigment'

Hornbill mask, Gurunsi-Nuna, Burkina Faso
Hornbill mask, Gurunsi-Nuna, Burkina Faso
€ 4,500.00
Gelede mask, Yoruba, Nigeria
Gelede mask, Yoruba, Nigeria
€ 22,000.00

Maître de Bouaflé

Simone Breton en 1927.  Man Ray


Mask Gouro Maître de bouaflé

Vente record pour un masque ayant appartenu au surréaliste André Breton masque Gouro de Côte d’Ivoire a atteint la somme respectable de 1 375 000 euros

Mask Gouro Maître de bouaflé



See the continuation... ]

 
 
Pol Pierre Gossiaux
 
Titulaire de la Chaire
d’Anthropologie des systèmes symboliques
et d’Ethnosémiologie de l’Art africain
Université de Liège (Belgium)
 
PP.Gossiaux@ulg.ac.be
 
 
 
 
 
Le Bwame  du Léopard
des
Babembe  (Kivu-Congo)
 
Rituel initiatique et rituel funéraire
 
Avec 52 illustrations
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
          2
     
 
 
 
Table des matières (1ère partie)
 
 
 
 
 
Avant dire. Présentation du Bwamè                                    
 
 
3
Fondements de l’anthropologie
et de l’ethnosémiologie bembe
 
10
Exorciser l’animal
 
Fondements du savoir bembe
 
 
15
Les animaux et la titulature du Bwamè
       
See the continuation... ]

THE NEW CONGO COLLECTION

During the summer of 1912 the Museum acquired by purchase a collection of about two thousand 
specimens consisting of weapons, utensils, ornaments, clothing and images from a number of African 
tribes living in the Congo basin.  This collection was, for the most part, obtained from the natives by the 
well-known German traveler, Frobenius.    

in a way which served at least to show what a variety of artistic activities and  what a rich  culture  the in 
a way which served at least to show what a variety of artistic activities and  what a rich  culture  the 
native Congo peoples possess.     
native Congo peoples possess.     


Visitors  had  an  opportunity   of   admiring the wonderful carved wooden boxes and cups,
See the continuation... ]

‘African Vision: The Walt Disney-Tishman African Art Collection’
 
This female figure, made of ivory and standing 37 inches tall, was made in the early Nineteenth Century by Edo peoples in the Benin kingdom court style, and was probably intended for an altar to a queen mother. It is one of the first two objects purchased by Paul and Ruth Tishman in 1959. "Ivory can be almost universally interpreted as a symbol of importance and wealth,” says exhibition curator Bryna Freyer.
WASHINGTON D.C.:Most Americans know little about the vast and diverse continent of Africa, much less the arts created there. Dark and primitive, the arts of the African peoples reflect the rituals of life, stripped to the most basic interpretive forms both conceptually and artistically.
Celebrating the arts of Africa and the profound role that they have played in molding Twentieth Century Abstraction and Modernist art in the "West" is the Smithsonian's newest exhibition, "African Vision: The Walt Disney-Tishman African Art Collection." It is on view through September 7, 2008, at The Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of African Art (NMAA).
 
"African Vision" showcases 88 outstanding artworks, part of a larger collection donated to the NMAA, that represents the largest gift of sculpture in the museum's history.
 
In 1959, Paul and Ruth Tishman began their collection with the purchase of two pieces of art from the Benin kingdom — an early Nineteenth Century ivory female figure standing 37 inches tall, made in the court style by the Edo peoples, and a 28-inch-tall, Eighteenth Century copper alloy mask that was worn by a divine-healer in masquerade
See the continuation... ]


Image Senoufo

SENOUFO

Issus du "melting pot" ivoirien, les Sénoufo ( littéralement ceux qui parlent le séné ) se déploient jusq'uau Mali. Leur diversité ethnique en explique le

foisonnement artistique dont les masques comme le statuaire combinent à la fois les fonction de divertissement ou de contrôle social ( confréries secrètes,

guérisseurs, sorciers..).

Si le statuaire insiste sur la pureté de la forme et la mixité de divers matériaux ( bois, tissu, fibre végétale, pigments purs), le masque vise à s'approprier

les forces multiples de l'anthropomorphisme comme donnée fondamentale, soit le symbole de l'incarnation du monde des esprits.

C'est dans la perception de cette force que s'exerce le talent des artistes.

Armand Auxiètre, Directeur de la Galerie " L'oeil et la Main " a choisi de présenter pour cette exposition un masque casque Sénoufo qui reprend les critères essentiels de la création plastique Sénoufo qui se partage entre intellectualisme de la ligne et sensualité du modelé organisant ainsi des composition d’un intense dynamisme.

** Masque casque, Sénoufo, Côte d’Ivoire, bois, patine d’usage, métal

Ce masque casque se compose d’un oiseau stylisé affublé de cornes. Cette association corne/oiseau regroupe deux éléments essentiels de la mythologie Senoufo : l’oiseau qui avec son ventre arrondi et son long bec symbolise la procréation et le buffle, évoqué par les cornes, qui aurait transmis aux sénoufo les secrets des plantes guérisseuses. Cette association très rare donne à cette pièce une valeur symbolique inestimable renforcée par la pureté des lignes de la sculpture.

See the continuation... ]

The Pende


The Pende pushed north by the Lunda, during the 17th, settled in an area located between Loango and Kasai regions. Two hundred years later Tchokwe invaded the territories for when they migrated north from Angola, but were forced to return the territories annexed by the Belgian colonizers. The 500000 Pende mainly farmers are not governed by a central authority but by the heads of households, known as the Djogo, sometimes aided by the noble nobles. Young men are organized by age group, and must pass through various initiatives including that of circumcision during adolescence.

Art Pende can be divided into two traditions, arts, the first comes from Western Pende who live along the river Lodango, the second focuses on the eastern Pende along the Kasai River.


Masks:

The Western Pende have used a dozen different types of masks during their ceremony, they have eyes looking down a triangular nose, and sometimes leaving a protruding mouth see the teeth.

Often found three types of masks in Western collections. The first long-beard is called Kiwoyo Muyombo. The second known Mangu, show the features distorted, probably evoking the effects of an epileptic seizure. The third mask Phumbu chief called, has a hair divided into three parts.

Masks and helmets masks, associated with Pende, Oriental Minyangi are called respectively, and Giphogo. Worn by dancers during initiation ceremonies, they have

See the continuation... ]

dan


Image dan

Dan

In the also known under the name of Yacub, living in western Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia, in a wooded area south and covered by savannah in the north. At 350000 they live on cocoa cultivation of rice and cassava. Before that secret societies do not unite around the beginning of the century, Dan lived in autonomous villages, headed by a chief elected for its wealth and social position.

Nowadays society Leopard plays a major role in the lives of Dan: Candidates for initiation must pass a period of isolation in the forest three to four months. The dances are known for their festivals which were originally village ceremonies but who today are rather aimed at tourists during these holidays appear dancers often perched on stilts.

Masks:

Dan masks are characterized by a concave face, pointed chin a protruding mouth, high forehead and are often covered with a rich brown patina, masks of similar types exist throughout the country Dan, but some stylistic variations, can be observed. For example: the masks of the north dan often have delicate features, a high forehead smooth eye in the middle of the face and a very smooth patina obtained by immersing the mask in a mud bath. The masks of southern Dan Rather, protruding features and a grainy patina achieved by application of plant pigments.

Different types of masks exist and Dan each have a specific function.

Deangle the mask is characterized by a front line separated by a median of almond eyes, sometimes covered with kaolin, is worn

See the continuation... ]


Image SENOUFO

AFRICA COLORS

exhibition from September 30 to December 6, 2010

This new exhibition offers a unique ethnic landscape through the theme of color in African art. Masks of War Dan masks Ibibio of Nigeria, Armand Auxiètre,

Gallery director "The eye and hand" presents a selection

representative works of customs or practices of these civilizations:

Pure and simple, the colors are chosen by the artists

to evoke in turn respect for ancestors, virility new initiates, death ... Gallery Eye and the Hand invite you to discover the symbolic

* Mask Anang, Language Arts Ibidio, Nigeria, XX, Wood and pigments.

According Fagg this hairstyle could mimic that of the wives of missionaries. This mask was probably made in the years 20/30 by famous sculptor Akpan Chukwu death in the early 50 or by one of his disciples.

Some features like the nose rounded chin bulging contours clearly defined eyes and lips that speak for attribution. Mask probably the same time and same sculptor is the Musée Barbier Muller.

Opening Thursday, September 30, 2010, from 6:30 p.m.

Art Gallery of eye and hand

41 rue de Verneuil

75007 Paris

contact@agalom.com

www.african-paris.com

See the continuation... ]


Image Africa colors

AFRICA COLORS

exhibition from September 30 to December 6, 2010

This new exhibition offers a unique ethnic landscape through the theme of color in African art. Masks of War Dan masks Ibibio of Nigeria, Armand Auxiètre,

Gallery director "The eye and hand" presents a selection

representative works of customs or practices of these civilizations:

Pure and simple, the colors are chosen by the artists

to evoke in turn respect for ancestors, virility new initiates, death ... Gallery Eye and the Hand invite you to discover the symbolic

* Mask Anang, Language Arts Ibidio, Nigeria, XX, Wood and pigments.

According Fagg this hairstyle could mimic that of the wives of missionaries. This mask was probably made in the years 20/30 by famous sculptor Akpan Chukwu death in the early 50 or by one of his disciples.

Some features like the nose rounded chin bulging contours clearly defined eyes and lips that speak for attribution. Mask probably the same time and same sculptor is the Musée Barbier Muller.

Opening Thursday, September 30, 2010, from 6:30 p.m.

Art Gallery of eye and hand

41 rue de Verneuil

75007 Paris

contact@agalom.com

www.african-paris.com

See the continuation... ]


Image Exposition Fleuve Congo - les ethnies

The works are presented in a geographical journey of productions ranging from West to East, both from Gabon to Congo:

* The Fang peoples and related
* The Kwele
* The Mbede-Kota
* The Tsogho, Galwa, Aduma, Vuvi and Teke (Tsaayi)
* The Ngbaka, and Ngbandi Ngombe
* The Mbole, Yela, Metoko, Komo, Jong, Lengola and Kela
* The Lega and Bembe

THE FANG:

THE KWELE: they live on the northern border of the Republic of Congo, and have used a type of mask called Ekuk, they are flat masks, which have incised eyes, often a white face in a heart-shaped nose triangle-shaped eyes and coffee bean. these masks were hung in homes rarely worn during ceremonies, initiation Bwetes worship, their function was to conduct a village to enable forces are beneficial Bwetes capita.

THE KOTA: Living in the eastern part of Gabon, on the border with the Republic of Congo, Kota, include a number of tribes, such as Mahongwe the Sango, the Obamba, and Shamay, who practice the same rituals and shared cultural traits. They probably migrated southward during the 18th, and now live in the valley of the river, Ogonoué in a forest environment. from their economic resources, sutout hunting and agriculture. Kota the past, had the habit of leaving their dead exposed to the elements in the forest. Under the influence of neighboring tribes, they began to bury their cefs and keep their bones (mainly the skull) to place them with

See the continuation... ]

galeries art africain,gallerie art africain, galerie art africain, galerie d art africain, art,sculptures, art sculpture, galerie d art,galerie art en ligne, galerie art contemporain, expo art africain, galerie, exposition art africain, achat art contemporain, exposition, expositions, art africain, art premier, art primitif, arts premiers, arts primitifs, art, arts, primitif, primitifs, primitive, premier, premiers, tribal, tribals, african, africain, oeuvre, oeuvres, musée, museum, antiquités, antiquaire,antiques, Paris, Orsay, Verneuil, Mona Lisa, Louvre, galerie, gallery, Africa, Afrika,Afrique,histoire, history, art objects, objects, mask, masks, masque, masques, statues,statue, fétiches, fétiche, carving, siège, seat, appuie-nuque, artiste, artistique, achat,vente, expertise, Picasso, André, Breton, Jacques, Kerchache, Vlaminck, Quai Branly, Marcel,Griaule, Jean, Rouch, Cameroun, Bamiléké, Bamoun, Dogon, Bandiagara, Nigeria, Côte d'Ivoire,Ivory Coast, Liberia, Yoruba, Baoulé, Sénoufo, Kota, Bambara, Ashanti, Ghana, Bangwa, Cokwe,Tchokwe, Kifwebe, Burkina Faso, Gabon, Fang, Punu, Ethiopie, Ethiopia, Benin,art art africain primitif art primitives art mask yoruba african arts primitifs art arts premiers art africain  expert gallery african  galerie d'art africain masque statue  art d'afrique noire exposition primitive tribal africa afrika, premier, premiers, art premier, arts premier, art premiers, arts premiers, musee art premier, musee arts premier, musee arts premiers, les arts premiers, les arts premier, les art premier, galerie art premier,galerie arts premier, galerie arts premiers, exposition art premier, exposition art premiers,exposition arts premiers, primitif, primitifs, art primitif, arts primitif, art primitifs,arts primitifs, musee art primitif, museearts primitif, musee arts primitifs, les arts primitifs, les arts, primitif,

See the continuation... ]

AFRICAN SCULPTURE

Introduction
Context of African sculpture
Places of traditional African sculpture
Canons of African sculpture
Techniques and creative
Aesthetic
Role of African sculpture in the middle
Universal impact of African sculpture
Bibliographic


Introduction

Never has been written about as much ink as traditional African sculpture. Ever, despite all attempts, the man has managed to evacuate his mental field, much less its history, that is to say of his encounter with the other. It has been a cornerstone to measure the "civilization" of the black man and his ability to create capacity variously appreciated throughout history until early this century, cubism helping, the unanimously begins to make the exceptional nature of African sculpture that was always confused with African art which it is a party, probably the most important, if one were to judge solely by the number Parts created that we have reached.

Context of African sculpture

We can talk about African sculpture in isolation from the rest of the arts of Africa south of Sahara. Every word in this area is responsible not only meaningless but history, and if we chose the term "African art" is to fully assume all we have inherited from the past in

See the continuation... ]

African art

African art constitutes one of the most diverse legacies on earth. Though many casual observers tend to generalize "traditional" African art, the continent is full of peoples, societies, and civilizations, each with a unique visual special culture. The definition also includes the art of the African Diasporas, such as the art of African Americans. Despite this diversity, there are some unifying artistic themes when considering the totality of the visual culture from the continent of Africa.

    * Emphasis on the human figure: The human figure has always been a the primary subject matter for most African art, and this emphasis even influenced certain European traditions. For example in the fifteenth century Portugal traded with the Sapi culture near the Ivory Coast in West Africa, who created elaborate ivory saltcellars that were hybrids of African and European designs, most notably in the addition of the human figure (the human figure typically did not appear in Portuguese saltcellars). The human figure may symbolize the living or the dead, may reference chiefs, dancers, or various trades such as drummers or hunters, or even may be an anthropomorphic representation of a god or have other votive function. Another common theme is the inter-morphosis of human and animal.

Yoruba bronze head sculpture, Ife, Nigeria c. 12th century A.D.

    * Visual abstraction: African artworks tend to favor visual abstraction over naturalistic representation. This is because many African artworks generalize stylistic norms. Ancient Egyptian art, also usually thought of as naturalistically depictive, makes use of highly abstracted and regimented visual canons, especially in painting, as well as the use of different colors to represent the qualities and characteristics of an individual being depicted.

    * Emphasis on sculpture: African artists
See the continuation... ]

Masks

The viewing of masks is often restricted to certain peoples or places, even when used in performance, or masquerade. African masks manifest spirits of ancestors or nature as well as characters that are spiritual and social forces. During a masquerade, which is performed during ceremonial occasions such as agricultural, initiation, leadership and funerary rites, the mask becomes the otherworld being. When collected by Western cultures, masks are often displayed without their costume ensemble and lack the words, music and movement, or dance, that are integral to the context of African masquerades. Visually, masks are often a combination of human and animal traits. They can be made of wood, natural or man-made fibers, cloth and animal skin. Masks are usually worn with costumes and can, to some extent, be categorized by form, which includes face masks, crest masks, cap masks, helmet masks, shoulder masks, and fiber and body masks. Maskettes, which are shaped like masks, are smaller and are not worn on or over the face. They may be worn on an individual’s arm or hip or hung on a fence or other structure near the performance area.

Sculpture

The cultures of Africa have created a world-renowned tradition of three-dimensional and relief sculpture. Everyday and ceremonial works of great delicacy and surface detail are fashioned by artists using carving, modeling, smithing and casting techniques. Masks, figures, musical instruments, containers, furniture, tools and equipment are all part of the sculptor’s repertoire. The human figure is perhaps the most prominent sculptural form in Africa, as it has been for millennia. Male and female images in wood, ivory, bone, stone, earth, fired clay, iron and copper alloy embody cultural values, depict the ideal and represent spirits, ancestors and deities. Used in a broad range of contexts--initiation, healing, divination,
See the continuation... ]

Jackson Pollock

Photographer Hans Namuth extensively documented Pollock's unique painting techniques.
Birth name     Paul Jackson Pollock
Born     January 28, 1912(1912-01-28)
Cody, Wyoming
Died     August 11, 1956 (aged 44)
Springs, New York
Nationality     American
Field     Painter
Training     Art Students League of New York
Movement     Abstract expressionism
Patrons     Peggy Guggenheim

Paul Jackson Pollock (January 28, 1912 – August 11, 1956) was an influential American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement. In October 1945, he married the artist Lee Krasner.  During his lifetime, Pollock enjoyed considerable fame and notoriety. He was regarded as a mostly reclusive artist, but had a volatile personality and struggled with alcoholism all of his life. He died at the age of 44 in an alcohol-related, single-car crash. In December 1956, he was given a memorial
See the continuation... ]

THE PAINTINGS OF CHURCH ABBA ANTONIOS


The paintings on canvas of Abba Antonios church in Gondar in Ethiopia were collected by Marcel Griaule and his team at the Dakar-Djibouti mission in 1932. They probably date from the late eighteenth century and measure (for the pieces installed at the Musée du Quai Branly) about 2.3 meters high. All bear the inventory numbers from 31.74.3584 to 31.74.3630.

DESCRIPTION

The paintings in the church are made Abba Antonios egg on a canvas backing. They are mainly figures of saints, or episodes of Christian history (Old and New Testament apocryphal writings), arranged in superimposed registers.
At the Musée du Quai Branly, the totality of what has been harvested (60 sq.m.) is not exposed. In the room devoted to Ethiopian paintings, on the right shows a St. George, followed by a representation of God overcoming the Covenant of Grace and twelve priests of Heaven, from the west wall of the church. Opposite the entrance, three holy knights recognizable opponents it lands (small naked figures for St. Theodore, a centaur, a lion's body and tail shaped double snake for St. Claude, the emperor Julian the apostolate who tried to restore paganism to holy Mercury) overcome the images of the first Christian martyrs who have proclaimed the Gospel, namely John the Baptist, St. Paul, St. Peter and St. Etienne. Finally on the left wall you can see four of the kings of the Old Testament in the upper register (David, Solomon, Hezekiah and Josiah) and a couple of

See the continuation... ]

Art

Art

Art is the process or product of deliberately arranging elements in a way that appeals to the senses or emotions. It encompasses a diverse range of human activities, creations, and modes of expression, including music and literature. The meaning of art is explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics.

The definition and evaluation of art has become especially problematic since the early 20th century. Richard Wollheim distinguishes three approaches: the Realist, whereby aesthetic quality is an absolute value independent of any human view; the Objectivist, whereby it is also an absolute value, but is dependent on general human experience; and the Relativist position, whereby it is not an absolute value, but depends on, and varies with, the human experience of different humans. An object may be characterized by the intentions, or lack thereof, of its creator, regardless of its apparent purpose. A cup, which ostensibly can be used as a container, may be considered art if intended solely as an ornament, while a painting may be deemed craft if mass-produced.

Traditionally, the term art was used to refer to any skill or mastery. This conception changed during the Romantic period, when art came to be seen as "a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with religion and science". Generally, art is made with the intention of stimulating thoughts and emotions.

The nature of art has been described by Richard Wollheim as "one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture". It has been defined
See the continuation... ]


Le pigment est une substance colorée naturelle ou artificielle. Dans la nature cela peut-être le constituant d'un minéral ou bien une substance organique, animale ou végétale, présente dans les cellules d'un organisme vivant et produisant la couleur.En art ou en industrie les pigments sont des poudres, généralement broyées très finement avant d'être mises en suspension dans un liant (ou médium), liquide, plus ou moins fluide, ou visqueux, pour obtenir les peintures, les enduits, ou les encres. Ils sont généralement insolubles dans le milieu se fixant à la surface du support sur lequel on l'applique, contrairement aux teintures qui pénètrent dans les fibres.

Histoire

Les colorants étaient connus et utilisés depuis la plus haute Antiquité. Les Sumériens, Grecs, Romains, Égyptiens, Mayas, etc. les utilisaient abondamment, notamment comme produits cosmétiques.
Cependant, ces colorants, malgré leur très grande efficacité, ne sont plus utilisés car ils contenaient des sels métalliques hautement toxiques comme des arséniates, du carbonate de cuivre ou vert-de-gris, de la céruse sans oublier l'antimoine, le mercure, le plomb, etc.

Botanique

Substance organique produisant la couleur constitutive des éléments de la plante :
    * feuilles : chlorophylle (E140), anthocyanes (E163) (ou lipochromes) rouges, bleus ou violets
    * tronc :
    * racines : carotène (caroténoïdes E160)
Les principaux pigments naturels (colorants) extraits des plantes comprennent :
    * l'indigo tiré de l'indigotier,
    * le
See the continuation... ]

Le pigment est une substance colorée naturelle ou artificielle. Dans la nature cela peut-être le constituant d'un minéral ou bien une substance organique, animale ou végétale, présente dans les cellules d'un organisme vivant et produisant la couleur.En art ou en industrie les pigments sont des poudres, généralement broyées très finement avant d'être mises en suspension dans un liant (ou médium), liquide, plus ou moins fluide, ou visqueux, pour obtenir les peintures, les enduits, ou les encres. Ils sont généralement insolubles dans le milieu se fixant à la surface du support sur lequel on l'applique, contrairement aux teintures qui pénètrent dans les fibres.

Histoire
Les colorants étaient connus et utilisés depuis la plus haute Antiquité. Les Sumériens, Grecs, Romains, Égyptiens, Mayas, etc. les utilisaient abondamment, notamment comme produits cosmétiques.
Cependant, ces colorants, malgré leur très grande efficacité, ne sont plus utilisés car ils contenaient des sels métalliques hautement toxiques comme des arséniates, du carbonate de cuivre ou vert-de-gris, de la céruse sans oublier l'antimoine, le mercure, le plomb, etc.

Botanique
Substance organique produisant la couleur constitutive des éléments de la plante :
    * feuilles : chlorophylle (E140), anthocyanes (E163) (ou lipochromes) rouges, bleus ou violets
    * tronc :
    * racines : carotène (caroténoïdes E160)
Les principaux pigments naturels (colorants) extraits des plantes comprennent :
    * l'indigo tiré de l'indigotier,
    * le bleu pastel tiré du pastel
See the continuation... ]

Anne-Louise Amanieu
Ecole du Louvre
Spécialité Arts de l'Afrique
Février 2008

LES PEINTURES DE L'EGLISE ABBA ANTONIOS

Les peintures sur toile de l'église Abba Antonios de Gondar en Ethiopie ont été collectées par Marcel Griaule et son équipe lors de la mission Dakar-Djibouti en 1932. Elles datent sûrement de la fin du XVIIième siècle et mesurent (pour les morceaux installés au Musée du Quai Branly) environ 2,3 mètres de haut. L'ensemble porte les numéros d'inventaire allant de 31.74.3584 à 31.74.3630.

DESCRIPTION

Les peintures de l'église Abba Antonios sont faites à base d'œuf, sur un support de toile. Elles représentent essentiellement des figures de saints ou des épisodes de l'histoire chrétienne (Ancien et Nouveau Testament, écritures apocryphes), disposés dans des registres superposés.
Au Musée du Quai Branly, la totalité de ce qui a été récolté (environ 60m²) n'est pas exposée. Dans la salle consacrée aux peintures éthiopiennes, à droite on peut voir
See the continuation... ]

Pages 1 2
Search
Translations
Menu
Newsletter
Links
Publicités