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 GALERIE ART PREMIER AFRICAIN GALERIE ART PRIMITIF AFRICAIN AFRICAN ART GALLERY

GALERIE ART PREMIER AFRICAIN GALERIE ART PRIMITIF AFRICAIN AFRICAN ART GALLERY

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Result of the research Result of the research : 'tribe'

 

The Authenticity of African Sculptures

by Henri Kamer

The issue of authenticity of African art has been central to collectors for decades.  Henri Kamer, who was president of the International Arts Experts Association at the time, published an outstanding account of the state of the matter in Artes d'Afrique Noire, No. 12 (1974).  The text  that follows is extracted from an English translation of that article, and has been edited further.  The original includes a number of illustrations.  They are not included here because I believe the text suffices without them. 

The original version, including the illustrations, in French and with the English translation, is 

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Évolution conceptuelle en histoire de l'art africain
1. Le paradigme évolutionniste, concept scientifique pour interpréter les arts africains :
 
L'acquisition d'objets culturels africains lors de la colonisation favorise le développement de recherches scientifiques, tant sur le plan ethnologique que sur le plan de l'histoire de l'art. Pour Valentin Mudimbé, il y a en parallèle une quête promotionnelle de ces objets, considérés alors comme oeuvres d'art (dénommé : "art nègre", "art primitif"). Ces deux approches utilisent le concept de "primitif" pour interpréter les objets observés et présentés.
 
L'analyse esthétique de ces objets est fortement influencée au début par les paradigmes et les concepts évolutionnistes issus de l'anthropologie  - "phase d'ethnologisation" des cultures africaines, qui consiste à isoler les particularités culturelles, les objets et les sociétés. 
 
À la fin du XIXe siècle, Edward B. Tylor établit dans son ouvrage Primitive culture : researches int the development of mythology, religion, language, art and custom (1871) une relation entre les arts et les mentalités afin d'illustrer le caractère "primitife" et "inférieur" des populations étudiées. Les arts sont définis suivant leur développement technique. Ainsi, "il s'agit d'art de ces individus restés jusqu'à une époque récente à un niveau technique peu avancé, qui utilisent des outils mais pas des machines" (Sally Price 1995, 11). Et, au début du XXe
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Image Masks of Black Africa
SEGY Ladislas
Masks of Black Africa
 
Détails sur le produit: - Broché: 248 pages - Editeur: Dover Publications Inc. (6 septembre 1976) - Langue: Anglais - ISBN-10: 048623181X - ISBN-13: 978-0486231815
 
Descrizione libro: Dover Publications, NY, 1976. First Edition; 4to, 248 pages. Comprehensive study of Arican masks, profusely illustrated with 264 b&w photographs of masks from all parts of Africa, each identified by tribe, place of origin, and ritual use. Includes masks of the Dogon, Bambara, Senufo, Guere (Ngere)-Wobe, Baule, Kuyu, Yoruba, Baga, Bapende, Bwa, Bobo-Fing, Ibo, and many other tribes. Lengthy introductory essay discussing the psychology of the masks, roles of the dancer, naturalism vs. abstraction, carving styles, the place of the carver in tribal society, and much other background material. Extensive tribal location map at the front. A Dover original first edtion. Fine, in illustrated
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Image African Sculpture
SEGY Ladislas
African Sculpture
 
Détails sur le produit: - Broché: 244 pages - Editeur: Dover Publications Inc. (1958) - Langue: Anglais 
ISBN-10: 0486203964 - ISBN-13: 978-0486203966
 
Descrizione libro: Dover Books, New York, 1958. Soft Cover. Photographs by the author (illustratore). First Edition Thus. First Thus. Size: 8vo - over 7¾" - 9¾" tall. Clean bright copy. Clean. 244 pg., 164 full-page plates, bibliography, and map; Beautiful copy, clean and tight with min. edge wear and one shallow crease on lower front corner. "A wealth of material is illustrated, in wood and metal, showing typical productions of 50 art-producing tribes of West and Central Africa. Works of the Shanti, Bakongo and Bateke Uoruba, Sherbro, and dozens of other tribes. In a straight forward 34 pg. introduction Dr. Segy presents an analysis of African sculpture, with frequent reference to material from anthropology, history of religion, and psychology." A very good reference of African
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Image African Sculpture
ROBBINS M. Warren - Robert H. Simmons et Richard Walters
African Sculpture
Détails sur le produit:
Relié: 240 pages - Editeur: Schiffer Publishing (juillet 2007) - Langue: Anglais 
ISBN-10: 0764323326 - ISBN-13: 978-0764323324
Descrizione libro: 
A comprehensive introduction to the vast range of tribal sculpture from Africa is presented in this photographic survey. Ashanti fertility dolls, Bambara dance headpieces, Bachokwe staff heads, and Bakuba boxes are included in 347 works from Senegal to the Congo regions, Mali to Sierra Leone. This book provides a tremendous opportunity for Africans and non-Africans alike to view the diversity, expressive quality, and sheer evocative power of African art, and to gain a better understanding of one of the great heritages of mankind. Warren Robbins presents the pieces from the perspective of two civilizations -- Africa and the West. Believing that the works are classical rather than primitive art, his sensitive analysis of the stylistic refinements of the various tribes past and present emphasizes the importance of preserving this art for posterity. The text and captions are presented in both English and
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Image Chokwe: Art and Initiation Among Chokwe and Related Peoples
JORDAN Manuel
Chokwe: Art and Initiation Among Chokwe and Related Peoples
 
Détails sur le produit: Broché: 191 pages Editeur: Prestel; Édition: illustrated edition (1 November 1998) Langue: Anglais - ISBN-10: 3791319973 - ISBN-13: 978-3791319971
 
Descrizione libro: Magnificently loaded with elegant plates of ceremonial and tribal objects from the Chokwe tribe and others in Angola, this exhibition catalog accompanies a show originating at the Birmingham Museum of Art in Alabama; editor Jordàn, who spent more than two years with the Chokwe and related tribes, is the museum's curator. The objects are mostly carved wood, but their polished, stylized vision of people and nature and the variety and especially the depth of feeling in masks raise them far above craft. The pieces are shown alone, as in a museum exhibit, with art stressed more than anthropology. To remedy this, seven scholarly articles by authorities on the Chokwe appear throughout, along with photos of native life. While this puts into context objects like whistles, thrones, and the intriguing divination baskets full of tiny magical charms, it has a somewhat choppy effect. One of a series of books on African art by Prestel (e.g., African Art from the Han Corey Collection, LJ 6/15/98), this covers a seldom-visited area rich in heritage. For larger art-oriented and college libraries.AGay W. Neale, Southside Virginia Community Coll. Lib.,
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Image KUBA
BINKLEY A. David, DARISH Patricia
KUBA
 
Détails sur le produit: Broché: 144 pages, 240x165 mm. - Editeur: Five Continents Editions (3 décembre 2009) - Collection: Visions of Africa Series - Langue: Anglais - ISBN-10: 8874394047 - ISBN-13: 978-8874394043
Descrizione libro: This title offers a fascinating and essential overview of the Kuba people and their art through fifty exemplary pieces. The latest volume in the Visions of Africa series, it explores the intriguing sculpture and decorative art of the Kuba people of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Best known for their king figures (ndop), considered among the greatest sculptural achievements of Sub-Saharan Africa, the Kuba actually produced little freestanding sculpture. Instead, they focused on a variety of decorative works that indicated success and achievement, and initiation-related pieces such as masks. The first book dedicated exclusively to this subject, Kuba examines the tribe's artistic development from the 17th century through the turbulent colonial and post-colonial periods. The authors also explore the impact of Kuba beliefs on their art and discuss the pervasive concerns that inform the tribe's art making. With 50 beautifully reproduced examples and an engaging, informative text, Kuba is a fascinating introduction to African
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Image The Tribal Arts of Africa
BACQUART Jean-Baptiste
The Tribal Arts of Africa: Surveying Africa's Artistic Geography 
Détails sur le produit: ISBN 10: 0500282315 / 0-500-28231-5 / ISBN 13: 9780500282311 - Casa editrice: Thames & Hudson - Data di pubblicazione: 2002 - Legatura: Brossura - Pagine:240
Descrizione libro:
Thames Hudson Ltd, United Kingdom, 2002. Paperback. New edition. 305 x 225 mm. Brand New Book with Free Worldwide Delivery. This work displays and defines the fruits of thousands of years of black African creative endeavour. All the objects included were made by Africans for their own use, spanning a period from the beginning of the first millennium to the early 20th century, before the commercial production of art aimed at the tourist trade. Jean-Baptiste Bacquart, has divided Africa south of the Sahara into 49 cultural areas. Each section studies the most important tribe within the area, surveying its social and political structures as well as its artistic production. The art is analyzed according to type - in most instances masks, statues, and everyday objects, such as utensils, furniture and jewelry. Where appropriate, further information on artistically related tribes is then provided. Each section contains its own bibliography. A detailed reference section with information on key collectors, collections open to the public and a glossary completes this
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Full text, digitalised by Lies Strijker and presented by the .Centre Aequatoria
Notes on the digitalisation and presentation


[Cover]

[1: empty]

[2]
IMPRIMI POTEST
Kanzenze, 12-2-1952
P. Simeon, o.m.f.
Sup. Reg.

IMPRIMATUR
Luabo-Kamina, 30-5-1952
+VICTOR PETRUS KEUPPENS
Vic. Ap. de Lulua


[3]

BANTU PHILOSOPHY
by
The Revd. Father PLACIDE TEMPELS

(Translated into English from "La Philosophie Bantoue" the French Version by Dr. A. Rubbens of Fr. Tempels' original work. The Revd. Colin King, M.A. Translator.)

With a Foreword to the English Edition by Dr Margaret Read, C.B.E.Ph. D.,M.A., formerly Professor of Education and Head of the Department Of Education in Tropical Areas, The

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THE NEW CONGO COLLECTION

During the summer of 1912 the Museum acquired by purchase a collection of about two thousand 
specimens consisting of weapons, utensils, ornaments, clothing and images from a number of African 
tribes living in the Congo basin.  This collection was, for the most part, obtained from the natives by the 
well-known German traveler, Frobenius.    

in a way which served at least to show what a variety of artistic activities and  what a rich  culture  the in 
a way which served at least to show what a variety of artistic activities and  what a rich  culture  the 
native Congo peoples possess.     
native Congo peoples possess.     


Visitors  had  an  opportunity   of   admiring the wonderful carved wooden boxes and cups,
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Musées

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Tribal Art - Jean-Baptiste BacquaSee the continuation... ]

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"Art plays an essential role in the lives of the African people and their communities. It serves a much more vital purpose than merely to beautify the human environment, as art is usually employed in contemporary Western societies.
The beauty of African art is simply an element of its function, for these objects would not be effective if they were not aesthetically pleasing. Its beauty and its content thus combine to make art the vehicle that ensures the survival of traditions, protects the community and the individual, and tells much of the person or persons who use it."
 
Tribal Art is rapidly growing in popularity. An even broader audience has been able to enjoy ‘Tribal Art’ thanks to major exhibitions in recent years in London, Paris, Berlin, Munich and Düsseldorf. 
   At the start of the 20th century, however, Tribal Art was already arousing great excitement among artists and art collectors. At a time when “Negro Art” was still looked upon as the innocent product of primitive peoples, cubists such as Picasso, Braque or Gris were already drawing inspiration from the strikingly new qualities of form; expressionists such as Kirchner, Nolde or Schmidt-Rottluff were captivated by the elementary power of this native art and Gauguin was painting scenes from his travels to countries of the South Pacific. Non-European art greatly influenced the work of these great artists as it continues to influence modern art of the present day. 
   Over the course of the decades, great art lovers such as von der Heydt (Rietberg Museum, Zurich) or Mueller (Barbier-Mueller Museum, Geneva) have established significant art collections, which alongside the “colonial legacy” provide the mainstay of the museums’ inventories all over the world. Today it is artists and art enthusiasts such as Baselitz, Arman or Fritz
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The Yoruba


The term Yoruba describes both a language and a tribe living between Nigeria and the Republic of Benin, in an area covered by forests and savannah. Their history can be traced from the beginning of our millennium, with the civilization of Ife. Following the collapse of the kingdom of Ife kingdom of a number such as Oyo and Ijebu emerged, they in turn disintegrated during the 18th and 19th, but were revived by the colonial powers, to the end of the 19th. Today they are still the basis of the Yoruba political structure. The slave trade touched heavily Yoruba people of Nigeria and he contributed to their diaspora and the release of their rites and beliefs.


The Yoruba are prolific craftsmen, most Yoruba art objects dating from between the late 19 th and the middle of this century, and can sometimes be attributed to known artists by their names, which is an exception in African art.


During the XVI, the Ijebu kingdom, ruled areas near the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. copper imported by sailors, was traded by the Portuguese Ijebu and many bronze objects were created by their artists. These objects reflect the influence of their neighbors, the Kingdom of Benin. Nevertheless, their bells and bracelets scepters are usually decorated with figures, half human, half animal with eyes bulging and curved scars on his forehead.

The empire of Oyo between the XVII and XIX was located in the northern territories or peoples

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The Luba


The Luba Empire was founded in 1585, in the depression of the Upemba by King Kongholo, his nephew and successor Llunga Kalala, enlarges rapidly until the kingdom territory on the left bank of the River Lualaba. At the height of the kingdom more than a million people live in tribes, various paid tribute to King Luba. At the end of XIX with DVANCED Ovimbudu of Angola and the raids of slave traders Islamic empire s'affiblit and collapsed when the Belgian colonists arrived.

The economy lm'empire Luba came from payment of tribute and redistribution of resources from agriculture, fishing and hunting, and mining.

Luba artists have created many objects related to the activity of the court, the prestige objects were usually decorated with female figures everywhere in Luba art. Because of the huge area covered by the empire there are wide variations in the corpus stylistic art Luba.


Masks:


Luba masks rare, are found mainly in the eastern part of the empire. One type of mask Luba, very similar to the masks of kifwebe Songye but has more rounded features. There are very few zoomorphic masks.


Statues:


Luba artists have sculpted female statues standing or kneeling Mboko called, cleverly taking a cut, and who served during the ceremonies of divination. The statues stand uncommon, and probably representing the forest spirits or ancestors are covered with a

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Image mossi
The Mossi


The first Mossi empire was founded during the fifteenth, by invaders from northern Ghana, today the Mossi are the largest tribe in Burkina Faso. The number of two million, they are the only people in the region to have a centralized government, headed by former Zaksoba.

Mossi sculptors are known for their polychrome masks that are worn during festivals, and to keep the crops. These masks that fulfill a function as totem, are carefully guarded when not worn, and their libations are offered in exchange for their protection and assistance.

Three different types of masks can be identified: they seem to correspond to different indigenous peoples living in this region prior to the invasion Mossi XV. The first type is found mostly in the western part of the Mossi, and includes masks decorated with small statues, animal or stylized face. The second type is included in the semicircular masks painted in white and representing positive spirits associated with the savanna. The third type of Mossi mask, called Karanga, is found mostly in the northern part of the country. It has a stylish rounded face topped by a large plate, a totemic animal or a human statue symbolizing an important ancestor. The statues are
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Image Gouro

Guro


Living among the Baule and Yaure west, the Malinke north and south wé and Bete. The Guro live in an area covered by savannah and forest. They migrated from the north during the XVI and is now number two hundred thousand, they were called but when Kweni were colonized between 1906 and 1912 the French invaders, gave them the name of Guro. Guro villages consist of round houses in the north and rectangular in the south. Each village is governed by a council of elders, representing each family, and secret societies. The Guru mainly grow cotton, rice, coffee and cocoa, men and women involved clearing plantations.

The Guro Art is an art and elegant masks consists mainly of elongated figures with a concave profile and almond eyes.


Masks:


Different types of masks can be noticed. In the western part of the country Guro masks have a pointed chin, a protruding mouth, almond-shaped eyes bulging and a high forehead sometimes decorated with scarification. They have an apotropaic function but are also worn by executioners during executions.

The southern style is influenced by that of the neighboring tribe, the Bete. Their masks are identifiable, thanks to their more naturalistic features, their scars on his forehead, triangular noses and eyes surrounded by incised scarification, they are sometimes called masks Guro-Bete

Another type of mask found in this region, has a bulging forehead, a snub nose

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Lobi

The tribes living in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Togo, live the culture of millet, cotton and occasionally livestock in the northern parts of the region. religious activities are dictated by the seasons. For example, during the dry season, when crops were made for festivals and ceremonies are held.

LOBI:
the two hundred and fifty miles Lobi, inhabit a territory spanning 3 countries, Burkina Faso, Ghana and Ivory Coast, they revere the spirits called Thil who are honored on altars built according to the instructions of the sorcerers. Generally located on the roof or inside houses. These altars are filled with objects such as crockery, iron statues of abstract form, and statues of wood or stone known as the Batebi supposed to incarnate the spirits Thil. Batebi Lobi statues measure between 5 and 60 cm have legs slightly bent and a big head hair smooth or fluted Batebi two categories can be distinguished. the first includes Batebi apotropaic, known as the Batebi dutundora which typically measure 60cm in height, and whose main characteristic is a ferocious expression, showing their ability to chase the evil forces.
The second type of Batebi embodies Thil spirits, and includes statues of wood or clay, in various positions, each corresponding to a specific Thil.
For example, the statue with outstretched arms, or raised arms symbolizes a dangerous Thil, while couples in sexual positions or statues of motherhood are supposed to embody a spirit thil who

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The Senufo

scattered between the Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso, Mali, one million five hundred thousand Senufo, live off agriculture and occasional hunting. they live in villages ruled by councils of elders, who elect a leader. cohesion of the tribe is reinforced by the Poro society initiates, and educates the Senufo men from lâge 7 years. Senufo theology based on the presence of a powerful god, Koulotiolo, and a mother goddess Katielo, which through the rites of the Poro society ruled over the world.
The Senufo art is one of the first to have been admired by Westerners, their artistic production is abundant, and their statues and masks are characterized by a mixture of realistic detail, allied to pure geometric forms. playing on the empty and full.

Masks:

the Senufo, use different types of masks, according to the occasion. mask called Kpéliyée used by members of the Poro society has a heart shaped face surrounded by fins. mask helmet représentatnt janiforme a buffalo head is used for funerals and in times of crisis. its main function is to destroy the evil spirits, his power comes from a small cup placed on top of his skull containing magical substances. sometimes for dancing sparks out of his mouth that earned him the name "fire-eater." another type of helmet mask, a buffalo head, under a pair of antelope horns, are used primarily during initiation ceremonies poro.
Senufo artists have created three types of crest, the first

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