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Result of the research Result of the research : 'ceremonies'

Ntomo mask, Bambara, Mali
Ntomo mask, Bambara, Mali
€ 6,000.00

 

The Authenticity of African Sculptures

by Henri Kamer

The issue of authenticity of African art has been central to collectors for decades.  Henri Kamer, who was president of the International Arts Experts Association at the time, published an outstanding account of the state of the matter in Artes d'Afrique Noire, No. 12 (1974).  The text  that follows is extracted from an English translation of that article, and has been edited further.  The original includes a number of illustrations.  They are not included here because I believe the text suffices without them. 

The original version, including the illustrations, in French and with the English translation, is 

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African Art on the Internet
 
 
 
15th Triennial Symposium on African Art, Arts Council of the African Studies Association, 2011, Wednesday, March 23 - Saturday, March 26, 2011, UCLA, Los Angeles, California
http://www.acasaonline.org/conf_next.htm
Addis Art - Ethiopian Art and Artists Page
Contemporary Ethiopian art and artists - paintings, sculptures and digital art work by students and professionals from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. University instructor, Getahun Assefa's paintings, drawings, sculpture, digital art. Also work by his brother, Tesfaye Assefa. Based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. [KF] http://www.addisart.com/
Addis Art - Nouveau Art from Ethiopia
Artists include Shiferaw Girma and Lulseged Retta. Photographs of each artist's work, a biography, and video. Founded by Mesai Haileleul. [KF] http://www.addis-art.com/
Adire African Textiles - Duncan Clarke
History, background, and photographs of adire, adinkra, kente, bogolan, Yoruba aso-oke, akwete, ewe, kuba, and nupe textiles. The symbolism of images is often provided. One can purchase textiles as well. Clarke's Ph.D. dissertation (School of Oriental and African Studies) is on Yoruba men's weaving. See also the Adire African Textiles blog. Based in London. http://www.adireafricantextiles.com/
Afewerk Tekle
"Ethiopia’s leading artist." Biography, his paintings, sculptures, mosaics, murals, art in the artist's home. Afewerk created the stained-glass windows at the entrance of Africa Hall, headquarters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. "In 1964, he became the first winner of the Haile Selassie I prize for Fine Arts." "In 2000, he was one of the few chosen World Laureates by the council of the ABI on the occasion of the 27th
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Image Mbuti Design: Paintings by Pygmy Women of the Ituri Forest
MEURANT Georges, THOMPSON Robert Farris
Mbuti Design: Paintings by Pygmy Women of the Ituri Forest
 
Détails sur le produit:
Relié: 224 pages - Editeur: Thames & Hudson Inc - 1996 - Langue: Anglais 
ISBN-10: 0500974306 - ISBN-13: 978-0500974308
Descriptions du produit:
Thames & Hudson Inc, 1996. Hardcover. 300 x 245 mm. Brand New Book with Free Worldwide Delivery. The Mbuti people, who live in the Ituri rainforest of northeastern Zaire, are one of the few remaining hunter-gatherer cultures in the world. Since 3500 BC they have been famed for their rich arts of music and dancing, but until recently the barkcloth drawings and paintings originally made by the women as loincloths for ceremonies and dances have been virtually unknown in the west. The qualities of these drawings and their reflection of the Mbuti people's way of life, are explored and illustrated in this volume. The drawings are closely analyzed, examined both thematically and aesthetically, and the wider influence of African forager art forms on contemporary world art is
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Image Babembe Sculpture
LEHUARD Raoul, LECOMTE Alain
Babembe Sculpture
 
Détails sur le produit: - Relié: 212 pages - Editeur: 5 Continents Editions srl; Édition: Bilingual (22 avril 2010) - Collection: ARTS 1ERS - Langue: Anglais 
ISBN-10: 8874395442 - ISBN-13: 978-8874395446
Présentation de l'éditeur: Première monographie consacrée à la production artistique et symbolique des Babembé, cet ouvrage richement illustré présente les sculptures anthropomorphes en bois que ce peuple consacrait au culte des ancêtres. La majorité d'entre elles sont reproduites ici pour la première fois; leur décor témoigne des tatouages, scarifications et ornements cutanés auxquels les Babembé avaient recours pour embellir leur corps lors des rituels d initiation.------ The first full investigation into the symbolic artworks of the Babembe, this richly illustrated monograph presents a particular type of sculpture that the Babembe devoted to their family ancestors. Many of these anthropomorphic wooden statues are published here for the first time, and they bear the same tattoos and scarifications, or skin decorations, that these people have always used to embellish their bodies during initiation
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Image GURO
 
FISCHER Eberhard
GURO: Masks, Performances, and Master Carvers in Ivory Coast
 
Détails sur le produit: Relié: 520 pages - 244mm x 45mm x 303mm. - Editeur: Prestel (3 mars 2008) - Langue: Anglais - ISBN-10: 3791339419 - ISBN-13: 978-3791339412
 
Descrizione libro: The Guro people of Africa's Ivory Coast are renowned for their rich mask and sculpture traditions. These objects of joyful and sublime beauty are used in a variety of social and spiritual ceremonies. Art ethnologist Eberhard Fischer has spent decades researching the Guro traditions and documenting their way of life. In this book he presents a collection of hundreds of images, many of them published for the first time, of masks and woodcarvings, as well as lively scenes of Guro dances and artisans at work. Numerous interviews with prominent Guro, including religious officials, carvers, weavers, dancers, and cult masters, enhance the appreciation of this society. Eberhard's unique understanding of the Guro makes this volume a standard work on the art and culture of these
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Full text, digitalised by Lies Strijker and presented by the .Centre Aequatoria
Notes on the digitalisation and presentation


[Cover]

[1: empty]

[2]
IMPRIMI POTEST
Kanzenze, 12-2-1952
P. Simeon, o.m.f.
Sup. Reg.

IMPRIMATUR
Luabo-Kamina, 30-5-1952
+VICTOR PETRUS KEUPPENS
Vic. Ap. de Lulua


[3]

BANTU PHILOSOPHY
by
The Revd. Father PLACIDE TEMPELS

(Translated into English from "La Philosophie Bantoue" the French Version by Dr. A. Rubbens of Fr. Tempels' original work. The Revd. Colin King, M.A. Translator.)

With a Foreword to the English Edition by Dr Margaret Read, C.B.E.Ph. D.,M.A., formerly Professor of Education and Head of the Department Of Education in Tropical Areas, The

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WHAT IS AFRICAN ART? 

SUPPORT NOTES FOR TEACHER

Learning & Information Department 
Telephone +44 (0)20 7323 8511/8854 
Facsimile +44 (0)20 7323 8855 
education@thebritishmuseum.ac.uk 
Great Russell Street 
London WC1B 3DG 
Switchboard +44 (0)20 7323 8000 
www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk 
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Tribal Art - Jean-Baptiste BacquaSee the continuation... ]

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The Pende


The Pende pushed north by the Lunda, during the 17th, settled in an area located between Loango and Kasai regions. Two hundred years later Tchokwe invaded the territories for when they migrated north from Angola, but were forced to return the territories annexed by the Belgian colonizers. The 500000 Pende mainly farmers are not governed by a central authority but by the heads of households, known as the Djogo, sometimes aided by the noble nobles. Young men are organized by age group, and must pass through various initiatives including that of circumcision during adolescence.

Art Pende can be divided into two traditions, arts, the first comes from Western Pende who live along the river Lodango, the second focuses on the eastern Pende along the Kasai River.


Masks:

The Western Pende have used a dozen different types of masks during their ceremony, they have eyes looking down a triangular nose, and sometimes leaving a protruding mouth see the teeth.

Often found three types of masks in Western collections. The first long-beard is called Kiwoyo Muyombo. The second known Mangu, show the features distorted, probably evoking the effects of an epileptic seizure. The third mask Phumbu chief called, has a hair divided into three parts.

Masks and helmets masks, associated with Pende, Oriental Minyangi are called respectively, and Giphogo. Worn by dancers during initiation ceremonies, they have

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The Yoruba


The term Yoruba describes both a language and a tribe living between Nigeria and the Republic of Benin, in an area covered by forests and savannah. Their history can be traced from the beginning of our millennium, with the civilization of Ife. Following the collapse of the kingdom of Ife kingdom of a number such as Oyo and Ijebu emerged, they in turn disintegrated during the 18th and 19th, but were revived by the colonial powers, to the end of the 19th. Today they are still the basis of the Yoruba political structure. The slave trade touched heavily Yoruba people of Nigeria and he contributed to their diaspora and the release of their rites and beliefs.


The Yoruba are prolific craftsmen, most Yoruba art objects dating from between the late 19 th and the middle of this century, and can sometimes be attributed to known artists by their names, which is an exception in African art.


During the XVI, the Ijebu kingdom, ruled areas near the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. copper imported by sailors, was traded by the Portuguese Ijebu and many bronze objects were created by their artists. These objects reflect the influence of their neighbors, the Kingdom of Benin. Nevertheless, their bells and bracelets scepters are usually decorated with figures, half human, half animal with eyes bulging and curved scars on his forehead.

The empire of Oyo between the XVII and XIX was located in the northern territories or peoples

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The Luba


The Luba Empire was founded in 1585, in the depression of the Upemba by King Kongholo, his nephew and successor Llunga Kalala, enlarges rapidly until the kingdom territory on the left bank of the River Lualaba. At the height of the kingdom more than a million people live in tribes, various paid tribute to King Luba. At the end of XIX with DVANCED Ovimbudu of Angola and the raids of slave traders Islamic empire s'affiblit and collapsed when the Belgian colonists arrived.

The economy lm'empire Luba came from payment of tribute and redistribution of resources from agriculture, fishing and hunting, and mining.

Luba artists have created many objects related to the activity of the court, the prestige objects were usually decorated with female figures everywhere in Luba art. Because of the huge area covered by the empire there are wide variations in the corpus stylistic art Luba.


Masks:


Luba masks rare, are found mainly in the eastern part of the empire. One type of mask Luba, very similar to the masks of kifwebe Songye but has more rounded features. There are very few zoomorphic masks.


Statues:


Luba artists have sculpted female statues standing or kneeling Mboko called, cleverly taking a cut, and who served during the ceremonies of divination. The statues stand uncommon, and probably representing the forest spirits or ancestors are covered with a

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Image Songye people

Linguistically, the Songye form part of the Luba, world, itself part of the Bantu group. Indeed there is a century old inter relation between the Songye and Luba, and they therefore share many cultural traits. Some art forms are part of this, shared heritage, according to the oral tradition the founding chieftains of the first luba kingdom, were of songye origins, and it is the Songye who introduced the idea of social stratification to the Luba and consequently the first luba chieftains are said to be of Songye Ancestry.

 

ENVIRONMENT

The Songye used to live in a forest environment till the end of the first half of the second millennium. Slowly their habitat became more savannah-like. We can still find traces of this former forest habitat in some of the art they produce. For example the costume worn with the Kifwebe mask must be entirely made from products originating in the forest from such as bark, pelts fibers etc. Today the Songye mainly live in the savannah but pockets of forest remain in their territory.

The Songye occupy a very large area in the north of the southeastern quadrant of the republic democratic of Congo.

Due to the vastness of the songye territory, it is obvious that regional stylistic, iconic and typological, exist in the ritual art produced. Some of these are the result of cross influences with their immediate neighbors.

 

NEIGHBORS

To the North of the Songye territory, live the Sungu, Tetela, the western Kusu. In the northwest we will find a few luba chiefdoms. To the west the Luntu, Luba – kassaï Kete and Binji peoples resides; one can even find pockets of Chokwe people in the southwest of Songye territory. To the south of the Songye we find a variety of luba speacking, polities, the same is true, for eastern frontier where in addition to the eastern kusu, we find Luba, Hemba, Kunda, Lumbu and Buyu people. Judging from their

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Image mossi
The Mossi


The first Mossi empire was founded during the fifteenth, by invaders from northern Ghana, today the Mossi are the largest tribe in Burkina Faso. The number of two million, they are the only people in the region to have a centralized government, headed by former Zaksoba.

Mossi sculptors are known for their polychrome masks that are worn during festivals, and to keep the crops. These masks that fulfill a function as totem, are carefully guarded when not worn, and their libations are offered in exchange for their protection and assistance.

Three different types of masks can be identified: they seem to correspond to different indigenous peoples living in this region prior to the invasion Mossi XV. The first type is found mostly in the western part of the Mossi, and includes masks decorated with small statues, animal or stylized face. The second type is included in the semicircular masks painted in white and representing positive spirits associated with the savanna. The third type of Mossi mask, called Karanga, is found mostly in the northern part of the country. It has a stylish rounded face topped by a large plate, a totemic animal or a human statue symbolizing an important ancestor. The statues are
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dan


Image dan

Dan

In the also known under the name of Yacub, living in western Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia, in a wooded area south and covered by savannah in the north. At 350000 they live on cocoa cultivation of rice and cassava. Before that secret societies do not unite around the beginning of the century, Dan lived in autonomous villages, headed by a chief elected for its wealth and social position.

Nowadays society Leopard plays a major role in the lives of Dan: Candidates for initiation must pass a period of isolation in the forest three to four months. The dances are known for their festivals which were originally village ceremonies but who today are rather aimed at tourists during these holidays appear dancers often perched on stilts.

Masks:

Dan masks are characterized by a concave face, pointed chin a protruding mouth, high forehead and are often covered with a rich brown patina, masks of similar types exist throughout the country Dan, but some stylistic variations, can be observed. For example: the masks of the north dan often have delicate features, a high forehead smooth eye in the middle of the face and a very smooth patina obtained by immersing the mask in a mud bath. The masks of southern Dan Rather, protruding features and a grainy patina achieved by application of plant pigments.

Different types of masks exist and Dan each have a specific function.

Deangle the mask is characterized by a front line separated by a median of almond eyes, sometimes covered with kaolin, is worn

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Image baga

45000 Baga, live along the coast of Guinea Bissau in villages divided into two and four districts, themselves subdivided into 5 and 6 clans. According to tradition each village is headed by the oldest members of each clan were meeting in secret. Nowadays this system has been replaced by a mayor elected from each village.

The Baga worship a single god called Kanu assisted by a male spirit, Somtup, and a female spirit-A bowl. A spirit often represented by a snake, watch over the lower ranks of society to-Lom responsible for initiation rites.

The first sculptures Baga appeared in the West during the 50s, the impact of Islamization, and the abandonment of traditional rites and beliefs, the Western traders allowed to export the masks and headdresses Baga statues. Nowadays Baga trying to restore their culture with the help of their elders, they recreate ceremonies and celebrations that punctuated their traditional life.

Masks:

The mask is the most famous Baga Nimba called, is a mask shoulder supported by four pillars, it has large breasts, a large head with semi-circular ears, a chin and a pointy nose. He appeared at weddings, births, ceremonies related to crops and more generally in the ceremonies connected with joyful events. Two styles of Nimba masks have been identified, the first best known in the West has a concave face, whereas the second has a convex face.

The crest known as: Ziringen Wonde, was worn by dancers during ceremonies marking the end of the periods of initiation of girls,

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Lobi

The tribes living in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Togo, live the culture of millet, cotton and occasionally livestock in the northern parts of the region. religious activities are dictated by the seasons. For example, during the dry season, when crops were made for festivals and ceremonies are held.

LOBI:
the two hundred and fifty miles Lobi, inhabit a territory spanning 3 countries, Burkina Faso, Ghana and Ivory Coast, they revere the spirits called Thil who are honored on altars built according to the instructions of the sorcerers. Generally located on the roof or inside houses. These altars are filled with objects such as crockery, iron statues of abstract form, and statues of wood or stone known as the Batebi supposed to incarnate the spirits Thil. Batebi Lobi statues measure between 5 and 60 cm have legs slightly bent and a big head hair smooth or fluted Batebi two categories can be distinguished. the first includes Batebi apotropaic, known as the Batebi dutundora which typically measure 60cm in height, and whose main characteristic is a ferocious expression, showing their ability to chase the evil forces.
The second type of Batebi embodies Thil spirits, and includes statues of wood or clay, in various positions, each corresponding to a specific Thil.
For example, the statue with outstretched arms, or raised arms symbolizes a dangerous Thil, while couples in sexual positions or statues of motherhood are supposed to embody a spirit thil who

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The Senufo

scattered between the Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso, Mali, one million five hundred thousand Senufo, live off agriculture and occasional hunting. they live in villages ruled by councils of elders, who elect a leader. cohesion of the tribe is reinforced by the Poro society initiates, and educates the Senufo men from lâge 7 years. Senufo theology based on the presence of a powerful god, Koulotiolo, and a mother goddess Katielo, which through the rites of the Poro society ruled over the world.
The Senufo art is one of the first to have been admired by Westerners, their artistic production is abundant, and their statues and masks are characterized by a mixture of realistic detail, allied to pure geometric forms. playing on the empty and full.

Masks:

the Senufo, use different types of masks, according to the occasion. mask called Kpéliyée used by members of the Poro society has a heart shaped face surrounded by fins. mask helmet représentatnt janiforme a buffalo head is used for funerals and in times of crisis. its main function is to destroy the evil spirits, his power comes from a small cup placed on top of his skull containing magical substances. sometimes for dancing sparks out of his mouth that earned him the name "fire-eater." another type of helmet mask, a buffalo head, under a pair of antelope horns, are used primarily during initiation ceremonies poro.
Senufo artists have created three types of crest, the first

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Image yaka

Arts of Africa first Black Arts Spring 1981 No. 77
When we examine the significance of an African mask, we do not seek to know what the "message" it provides, by virtue of some essential notion of disguise and by his presence, but rather what kind of continuum it belongs. The masks are at the confluence of pictorial traditions, oral and functional none appears (under secular unable to recognize the subjects and even less discernible. The understanding of pictorial code used requires not only a review but a review of developed components as needed through the original context. Let us offer an example of the image with respect to the buffalo in the region of Zaire Kwango-Kwilu South West (1).
Synceros caffer, the largest of African cattle is a massive animal, black, cropped hair, measuring 1.50 m at the shoulder and weighing nearly a ton (900 kg.) (Fig. 1). Its heavy horns have a spacing of one meter, are curved downward and inward and form large lumps to their bases. This animal, originally occupied the central, eastern and southern Africa, frequenting the open plains, open woods and river beds and marshes bordered by reeds. Commonly preview herds of a dozen to a hundred heads, he used to graze and graze the early morning and again at dusk, seeking shade during the hottest hours but sometimes moving at night . Females do not carry a calf for about eleven months.

Considered peaceful, was injured when he can become, for hunters, the most dangerous animal of any big game on the continent (Fig. 2). He is known for his

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Image Exposition Fleuve Congo - les ethnies

The works are presented in a geographical journey of productions ranging from West to East, both from Gabon to Congo:

* The Fang peoples and related
* The Kwele
* The Mbede-Kota
* The Tsogho, Galwa, Aduma, Vuvi and Teke (Tsaayi)
* The Ngbaka, and Ngbandi Ngombe
* The Mbole, Yela, Metoko, Komo, Jong, Lengola and Kela
* The Lega and Bembe

THE FANG:

THE KWELE: they live on the northern border of the Republic of Congo, and have used a type of mask called Ekuk, they are flat masks, which have incised eyes, often a white face in a heart-shaped nose triangle-shaped eyes and coffee bean. these masks were hung in homes rarely worn during ceremonies, initiation Bwetes worship, their function was to conduct a village to enable forces are beneficial Bwetes capita.

THE KOTA: Living in the eastern part of Gabon, on the border with the Republic of Congo, Kota, include a number of tribes, such as Mahongwe the Sango, the Obamba, and Shamay, who practice the same rituals and shared cultural traits. They probably migrated southward during the 18th, and now live in the valley of the river, Ogonoué in a forest environment. from their economic resources, sutout hunting and agriculture. Kota the past, had the habit of leaving their dead exposed to the elements in the forest. Under the influence of neighboring tribes, they began to bury their cefs and keep their bones (mainly the skull) to place them with

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